Heavy metal concentration and physicochemical properties of soil in the lead-zinc mining area of Ishiagu, Nigeria

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/10/2013
Views (341) Download (16)
current_issue_feature_image
publication_file

Heavy metal concentration and physicochemical properties of soil in the lead-zinc mining area of Ishiagu, Nigeria

Chidi Enyinnaya Ogbonna, Emmanuel Nnayelu Adinna, Ositadinma Chinyere Ugbogu, Olawale Otitoju
J. Bio. Env. Sci.3( 10), 61-69, October 2013.
Certificate: JBES 2013 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

The study assessed heavy metal (lead, zinc, cobalt, chromium and cadmium) and physicochemical properties (pH, cation exchange capacity, electrical conductivity, organic carbon and clay content) of soil samples in Ishiagu lead- zinc mining area. Soil samples were collected at depths of 0-15cm, 16-30cm and 31-45cm from abandoned pit, active pit, artificial lake and tailing in the study area, and from a control site. Results of laboratory analysis indicated that heavy metal concentration followed the order zinc>lead>cobalt>chromium>cadmium with the control site having the least concentration. Heavy metal concentration was above normal limits in soil. Variations were also observed in soil physicochemical properties. Statistical analysis showed significance differences in both heavy metal content and physicochemical properties of soil between sites (p<0.05). There were no significant differences (p˃ 0.05) with respect to depth. There is high risk of heavy metal contamination of water and vegetation from the tailing area due to its low pH, while the higher clay content at the mining area may help impede metal dissolution. However, the high content of these toxic metals in the soil may have adverse effects on soil quality and on human health if they get into the food chain. In order to reduce the likelihood of this occurring, illegal artisanal mining and the consumption of contaminated plant and water should be strongly discouraged.

VIEWS 14

Abou- Shanah R, Ghanem, N, Ghanem, K, Al-Koliabe, A 2007. Phytoremediation Potential Of Crops And Wild Plants From Multi-Metal Contaminated Soils”. Research Journal of Agriculture and Biological Sciences 3, 370-376.

Adraino DC 2001. Trace Elements in Terrestial Environments. New York, Springer- Verlag

Agbenin JO 1995. Laboratory Manual for Soil and Plant Analysis (Selected Methods and Data Analysis). Institute of Agricultural Research, Faculty of Agriculture, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria.

Akubugwo EI, Ude VC, Uhuegbu, FO, Ugbogu, O 2012. Physicochemical Properties and Heavy Metal Content of Selected Water Sources in Ishiagu, Ebonyi State-Nigeria. Journal of Biodiversity and Environmental Sciences 2, 21-27.

Alloway WH. 1968. Agronomic controls over environmental cycling of trace elements. Advances in agronomy 20,235-274.

Alloway BJ, Ayres DC 1997. Chemical Principles Of Environmental Pollution. Second Edition. Glasgow, Black Academic and Professional Publishers.

Andrea V, Gimeno – Garcia, E 1999. Evolution of Heavy Metals in Marsh Areas under Rice Farming. Environmental Pollution 104, 271-282.

Anikwe MAN, Nwobodo, KCA 2002. Long Term Effects of Municipal Waste Disposal on Soil Properties and Productivity of Sites Used for Urban Agriculture in Abakiliki, Nigeria. Bioresource Technology 83, 241-250.

AOAC 2005. Official methods of analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. (11th.edn.). Washington. D.C

Areola O 1983. Soil and Vegetal Resources. In, Geography of Nigeria Development. J.S. Oguntoyinbo, O, Areola and M, Filani (Eds). Ibadan. Heinemann.

Aroh KN, Eze CL, Abam CKS, Gogo AE, Ubong IU 2007. Physicochemical Properties of Pit Water From Ishiagu Lead – Zinc Mines as an Index for Alkaline Classification of Mine Drainage. Journal of Applied Science and Environmental Management. 11, 19-24.

Awalla CO, Ezeigbo HI 2002. An Appraisal of Water Quality in the Uburu – Okposi Area of Ebonyi State, South – Eastern Nigeria. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Hydrogeologists 13, 33-39.

Baath E 1989. Effects of Heavy Metals in Soil on Microbial Processes and Population- A Review. Soil and Water Pollution, 47, 335-379

Basta NT, Pantone DJ, Tabatabia, MA 1993. Path Analysis of heavy Metal Adsorption by Soil. Journal of Agronomy 85, 1054-1057.

Blaylock MJ, Salt DE, Dushenkov S 1997. Enhanced Accumulation of Pb in Indian Mustard by Soil Applied Chelating Agents. Environmental Science Technology 31, 869-865.

Brady NC, Weil RR 1999. The Nature and Properties of Soil. New York, Prentice Hall.

Chaudhry R, Srivastava S 2001. Zinc Resistance Mechanism in Bacteria. Current Science 81, 768-775.

Davies BE 1977. Heavy Metal Pollution of British Agricultural Soils with Special Reference to Lead and Copper Mining. In Proceedings of International Seminar on Soil Environment and Fertility Management in Intensive Agriculture. Tokyo.

Duffus JH 2002. Heavy Metals – A Meaningless Term. Pure Applied Chemistry 74, 793-807.

Duruibe JO, Ogwuegbu, MOC, Egwurugwu, JN  2007.  Heavy  Metal  Pollution  and  Human Biotoxic Effects. International Journal of Physical Science 2, 112-118.

Eze HN, Chukwu E 2011. Small Scale Mining and Heavy Metal Pollution of Agricultural Soils: The Case of Ishiagu Mining District, South Eastern Nigeria Journal of Geology and Mining Research 3, 87-104.

Fritze H, Nini S, Mikkola K, Makinen H 1989. Soil Microbial Effects of Cu-Ni Smelter in South – Western Finland. Biology and Fertility of Soils 8, 87-94.

Gabarino, JR, Hayes H, Roth D, Antieider R, Britton TI, Taylor, H 1995. Heavy Metal Contamination in the Mississippi River. US Geological Survey Circular, 1133.Virginia USA

Humphries, JA. 2007. Effects of Long-term Metal Contamination on the Structure and Function of Microbial Communities in Soils. Ph.D Thesis. Texas Technical University, Texas.

Hutton M, Symon C 1986. The Quantities of Cadmium, Lead, Mercury and Arsenic Entering the UK Environment from Human Activities. Science of the Total Environment 57, 129-150.

Jung MC 2008. Heavy Metal Concentration in Soils and Factors Affecting Metal Uptake by Plants in the Vicinity of a Korean Cu-W Mine. Sensor 8, 2413-2423.

Kabata-Pendias  A,  Pendias  H  1984.  Trace Elements in Soil and Plants. Boca Raton, Florida. CRC Press.

Kabata-Pendias A, Pendias, H 2000. Trace Elements in Soil and Plants.(3rd edn.). Boca Raton, Florida. CRC Press.

Lorenz SE, Hamon RE, Holm PE, Domnigues HC., Sequeria, EM, Christensen, TH, McGrath SP. 1997. Cadmium and Zinc in Plants and Soil Solutions from Contaminated Sites. Plant and Soil 189, 21-31.

Neyak DC, Sen TK, Chamuah GS, Senghal, II 1996. Nature of Soil Acidity in Some Soils of Mainpur. Journal of Indian Society of Soil Science 44, 209-212.

Nwaugo VO, Obiekezie SO, Etok CA. 2007. Post Operational Effects of Heavy Metal Mining on Soil Quality in Ishiagu, Ebonyi State. International Journal of Biotechnology and Allied Sciences 2, 242-246.

Nwaugo VO, Onyeagba RA, Akubugwo EI, Ugbogu OC. 2008. Soil Bacteria Flora and Enzymatic Activities in Heavy Metal Contaminated Soils of Ishiagu, Ebonyi State. Biokemistri 20, 77-84.

Obasi AJ 2012. Biochemical Studies on Soil and Air Quality of Dumpsites on the Enugu – Portharcourt Expressway, South – East, Nigeria. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, Department of Biochemistry, Abia State University, Uturu, Nigeria.

Obiekezie SO 2005. Effects of Mining Activities on Physicochemical and Bacteriological Quality of Water and Soil in Ishiagu Area of Ebonyi State, Nigeria. Unpublished Ph.D Thesis, Department of Microbiology, Abia State University, Uturu.

Ofomata GEK 1975. Soil In Nigeria in Maps: Eastern States.Ofomata, G.E.K (Ed). Benin City. Ethiope Publishing House

Oguntoyinbo JS 1982. Climate: Precipitation. In, Nigeria in Maps.M.K Barbour, J.S Oguntoyinbo, J.O.C Onyemelukwe and J. C Nwafor (Eds). London. Hodder and Stoughton

Oguntoyinbo   JS 1987. Climate of West Africa. Chicago. Noble Books.

Ogwuegbu MOC, Muhanga W 2005. Investigation of Lead Concentration in the Blood of People in the Copper Belt of Zambia. Journal of Environment 1:66-75.

Okalebo JR, Gathua KW, Woomer PL 1993. Laboratory Methods for Soil and Plant Analysis. A Working Manual. Nairobi. EPZ Limited.

Oliveira A, Pampulha ME 2006. Effects of Long-term Heavy Metal Contamination on Soil Microbial Characteristics. Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 102, 157-161.

Onwuemesi FE, Ajiwe VIE, Okoye AC, Nnodu, VC 2011. Effect of Lead and Zinc Mining Activities on Ground Water Quality in Ishiagu, EbonyiState, Nigeria. Journal of International Environmental Applications and Science 6, 600-605.

Onyedike GO, Nwosu GU 2008. Lead, Zinc and Cadmium Accumulation in Root Crops From Mineralized Galena-Sphalerite Mining Areas and Environment. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition 7, 418-420.

Ross SM 1994. Sources and Forms of Potentially Toxic Metals in Soil Plant Systems. In Toxic Metals in Plant- Soil Systems. S.M, Ross (Ed). Chichester. John Wliey and Sons

Salomons W 1993. Non- Linear Responses of Toxic Chemicals in the Environment: A Challenge for Suitable Management. Proceedings of the European State of the Art Conference on the Delayed Effects of Chemicals in Soils and Sediments, Hoofddorp, 2-5 September, 1993.

Schimel J, Gulliedge J 1998. Microbial Community Structure and Global Trace Gases. Global Change Biology 4,745-758.

Sizmur TP 2007. Changes in the Microbial Community Structure of an Agricultural Soil Spiked With Zinc and Cadmium Followed by Planting Oilseed Rape (Brassica napus). Unpublished M.Sc Thesis. Cranfield University. United Kingdom.

Struczynski TI, McCarty GW, Siebielec G. 2007. Response of Soil Microbiological Activities to Cadmium, Lead and Zinc Amendments. Journal of Environmental Quality 32, 1346-1355.

Walkey AJ, Black IA 1934. Estimation of Soil Organic Carbon by the Chromic Acid Titration Method Soil Science 37, 29-38.

Zak JC, Willig MR, Moorhead DL, Wildman, HG 1994. Functional Diversity of Microbial Communities: A Quantitative Approach. Soil Biology and Biochemistry 26, 1101–1108.