Heavy metal contamination of soil and water due to chromite mining in Tehsil Khanozai, District Pishin, Balochistan, Pakistan

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/10/2021
Views (431) Download (25)

Heavy metal contamination of soil and water due to chromite mining in Tehsil Khanozai, District Pishin, Balochistan, Pakistan

Rabail Khan, Mohibullah Kakar, Zahoor Ahmed Bazai, Samiullah
J. Bio. Env. Sci.19( 4), 47-52, October 2021.
Certificate: JBES 2021 [Generate Certificate]


Heavy metals are not a biodegradable element, so they are on the rise due to widespread anthropogenic effects. The depletion of heavy metals and unsustainable assets increase the natural cost of mining. The current research was conducted in Khanozai District during the 2018 and 2019. The environmental and communal effects of both surface and underground mining were studied to determine heavy metals in water and soil samples. The heavy metal such as iron, copper, manganese, chromium and lead were examined through using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. The results show that the lead, manganese, chromium and iron content in the water has been found to exceed the WHO recommended limit while the copper values ​​have been recorded below. Normal salinity and pH were recorded for all water samples, while electrical conductivity was reported for all water samples within WHO limits. For all soil samples pH and salinity were recorded lower while the values of electricity conductivity were fluctuated. The results demonstrate that Khanozai is highly contaminated by heavy metal due to extensive activities of mining.


Adamu CI, Nganje TN, Edet A. 2015. Heavy metal contamination and health risk assessment associated with abandoned barite mines in Cross River State, southeastern Nigeria. Environmental Nanotechnology, Monitoring & Management 1(3), 10-21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.enmm.2014.11.001

Alloway BJ. 2013. Heavy metals and metalloids as micronutrients for plants and animals. In Heavy metals in soils Springer, Dordrecht.

Andráš P, Turisová I, Lacková E, Kharbish S, Krnáč J, Čmielová L. 2013. Environmental risk due to heavy metal contamination caused by old copper mining activity at Ľubietová deposit, Slovakia. Energy and Environment Research 3(2), 16. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10653-015-9780-2

Asrari E. 2014. Heavy metal contamination of water and soil: analysis, assessment, and remediation strategies. CRC Press.

Dhakate R, Singh VS, Hodlur GK. 2008. Impact assessment of chromite mining on groundwater through simulation modeling study in Sukinda chromite mining area, Orissa, India. Journal of hazardous materials 160(2-3), 535-47.

Emmanuel E, Sombo T, Ugwanyi J. 2018. Assessment of Heavy Metals Concentration in Shore Sediments from the Bank of River Benue, North-Central Nigeria. Journal of Geoscience and Environment Protection, 6(04), 35.

Gautam RK, Sharma SK, Mahiya S, Chattopadhyaya MC. 2014. Contamination of heavy metals in aquatic media: transport, toxicity and technologies for remediation 1-24. https://doi.org /10.1039 /9781782620174-00001

Guan Y, Shao C, Ju M. 2014. Heavy metal contamination assessment and partition for industrial and mining gathering areas. International journal of environmental research and public health 11(7), 7286-303. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph110707286

Hu H, Jin Q, Kavan P. 2014. A study of heavy metal pollution in China: Current status, pollution-control policies and countermeasures. Sustainability 6(9), 5820-38.

Islam MS, Ahmed MK, Raknuzzaman M, Habibullah-Al-Mamun M, Islam MK. 2015. Heavy metal pollution in surface water and sediment: a preliminary assessment of an urban river in a developing country. Ecological indicators 48, 282-91. http://dx.doi.org/10.12691/jas-5-1-2

Kaushik U, Lachake P, Shreedhara CS, Ram HA. 2009. In-Vitro Antioxidant Activity of Extracts of Avipattikar Churna. Pharmacology online 3, 581-9.

Khan SD, Mahmood K, Casey JF. 2007. Mapping of Muslim Bagh ophiolite complex (Pakistan) using new remote sensing, and field data. Journal of Asian Earth Sciences 30(2), 333-43.

Khan SD, Mahmood K, Sultan MI, Khan AS, Xiong Y, Sagintayev Z. 2010. Trace element geochemistry of groundwater from Quetta Valley, western Pakistan. Environmental Earth Sciences 60(3), 573-82. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12665-009-0197-z

Mebrahtu G, Zerabruk S. 2011. Concentration and health implication of heavy metals in drinking water from urban areas of Tigray region, Northern Ethiopia. Momona Ethiopian Journal of Science 3(1), 105-21. https://doi.org/10.4314/mejs.v3i1.63689

Salvi G, Buosi C, Arbulla D, Cherchi A, De Giudici G, Ibba A, De Muro S. 2015. Ostracoda and foraminifera response to a contaminated environment: the case of the Ex-Military Arsenal of the La Maddalena Harbour (Sardinia, Italy). Micropaleontology 1, 115-33.

Silva ML, Vitti GC, Trevizam AR. 2014. Heavy metal toxicity in rice and soybean plants cultivated in contaminated soil. Revista Ceres 61(2), 248-54. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0034-737X2014000200013

Simeonov LI, Kochubovski MV, Simeonova BG. 2010. Environmental heavy metal pollution and effects on child mental development: Risk assessment and prevention strategies. Springer.

Suthar S, Sharma J, Chabukdhara M, Nema AK. 2010. Water quality assessment of river Hindon at Ghaziabad, India: impact of industrial and urban wastewater. Environmental monitoring and assessment 165(1-4), 103-12. https://doi.org/ 10.1007/ s10661-009-0930-9

Waseem A, Arshad J, Iqbal F, Sajjad A, Mehmood Z, Murtaza G. 2014.  Pollution status of Pakistan: a retrospective review on heavy metal contamination of water, soil, and vegetables. BioMed research international 2014, 813206. https://doi.org/ 10.1155/2014/813206

Zhang Y, Mei S, Li L, Chai J, Li J, Du H. 2015. The relationship between impulsivity and internet addiction in Chinese college students: A moderated mediation analysis of meaning in life and self-esteem. PloS one 10(7), e0131597. https://doi.org/10.1371 /journal.pone.0131597

Zhuang P, Lu H, Li Z, Zou B, McBride MB. 2014. Multiple exposure and effects assessment of heavy metals in the population near mining area in South China. PloS one 9(4), e94484. https:// doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0094484.