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High prevalence of panton-valentine leukocidin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a tertiary care hospital in Peshawar, Pakistan

Aman Ullah, Bahir Ahmad, Shumaila Rauf, Dorte Frees

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Int. J. Biosci.15(1), 332-340, July 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/15.1.332-340


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Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a worldwide notorious pathogen. MRSA pose serious threats to the available therapeutic choices. Panton-Valentine Leukocidin (pvl) is an important virulence factor usually associated with skin and soft tissue infection while staphylococcal complement inhibitor (scn) is considered as a human adaptability marker. Therefore, the given study was conducted to determine the current antibiotic resistance trends, prevalence of induclible clindamycin resistant phenotype, pvl gene, and scn gene in MRSA strains prevailing in Peshawar, Pakistan. This prospective cross-sectional study was carried out at the Center of Biotechnology and Microbiology, University of Peshawar, Pakistan from December 2017 to May 2018.  Non-double consecutive MRSA isolates were anonymously enrolled in the study, isolated from different clinical specimens. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was determined by disc diffusion method, while inducible clindamycin resistance was detected by D-test. Moreover, all the phenotypically identified MRSA were subjected to multiplex PCR for the detection of mecA, mecC, pvl and scn genes. A total of 178 MRSA were included in the study, wherein, none of the isolate was either resistant or sensitive to all the 10 tested antibiotics. The resistance frequency of different antibiotics was: ciprofloxacin 89.8%, erythromycin 80.3%, cotrimoxazole 72.5%, gentamycin 71.9%, fusidic acid 63.4%, tetracycline 60.1%, clindamycin 46.1%, doxycycline 25.8%, and quinupristin/dalfopristin 6.7%, while linezolid was 100% susceptible. Prevalence of inducible clindamycin resistance, pvl and scn were 14.6%, 46.7%, and 97.1% respectively.The studied MRSA strains showed significant resistance toward the common therapeutic choices, and the prevalence of inducible clindamycin resistance and pvl is considerably high.


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High prevalence of panton-valentine leukocidin in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in a tertiary care hospital in Peshawar, Pakistan

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