Home-based therapeutics and organic treatment associated with recovery time of COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh: A cross-sectional survey

Paper Details

Research Paper 08/03/2024
Views (69) Download (23)

Home-based therapeutics and organic treatment associated with recovery time of COVID-19 patients in Bangladesh: A cross-sectional survey

Fardana Binte Zaman, Md. Shajadul Islam, Puspita Ghosh, Matthew Jackman, Musammet Rasheda Begum, Md Shafiqul Islam Khan
Int. J. Biosci.24( 3), 112-124, March 2024.
Certificate: IJB 2024 [Generate Certificate]


Although vaccines and antivirals are at play, non-pharmacological therapies and organic treatments may have a role in patients’ convalescence. This study, therefore, investigates home-based therapeutics and organic treatments in COVID-19 patients, and measures the recovery time of these confirmed cases. A cross-sectional survey was conducted where 267 patients participated in a telephone interview. Patient had positive results of reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR) were recruited through screening test reports provided by hospitals authorities. Independent sample t-test, one-way ANOVA, and Pearson’s correlation were performed. The mean age among the participants was 36.41 (±13.16) years. The mean time of recovery was 17.39 (±3.91) days. Frequent therapeutic and organic measures were having vitamin C-rich food, hot water, spiced tea, black cumin seed and using hot water vapor. Considerations of age (p=0.001), chronic disease (p=0.002), inhalation of hot water vapor (p=0.004), use of gloves(r = -0.13; p < 0.5), use of hand sanitizer (r = -0.14; p < 0.05) were significantly correlated with the number of days required for COVID-19 recovery. The study results highlighted the benefits of support therapies and organic treatments at home as complementary to the pharmacological interventions in slowing the COVID-19 progression and improving the prognosis.


Ahmed I, Hasan M, Akter R, Sarkar BK, Rahman M, Sarker MS, Samad MA. 2020. Behavioral preventive measures and the use of medicines and herbal products among the public in response to Covid-19 in Bangladesh: A cross-sectional study. PloS One 15(12), e0243706.

Al-Hanawi MK, Angawi K, Alshareef N, Qattan AMN, Helmy HZ, Abudawood Y, Chirwa GC. 2020. Knowledge, Attitude and Practice Toward COVID-19 Among the Public in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia: A Cross-Sectional Study. Frontiers in Public Health 8.

Alvi MM, Sivasankaran S, Singh M. 2020. Pharmacological and non-pharmacological efforts at prevention, mitigation, and treatment for COVID-19. Journal of Drug Targeting 28(7–8), 742–754.

Amin MT, Hasan M, Bhuiya NM. 2021. Prevalence of Covid-19 Associated Symptoms, Their Onset and Duration, and Variations Among Different Groups of Patients in Bangladesh. Frontiers in Public Health, 1417.

Azam MNK, Al Mahamud R, Hasan A, Jahan R, Rahmatullah M. 2020. Some home remedies used for treatment of COVID-19 in Bangladesh. Journal of Medicinal Plants Studies 8(4), 27-32.

Banik R, Rahman M, Sikder MT, Rahman QM, Pranta MUR. 2021. Knowledge, attitudes, and practices related to the COVID-19 pandemic among Bangladeshi youth: A web-based cross-sectional analysis. Journal of Public Health, 1–11.

Barman MP, Rahman T, Bora K, Borgohain C. 2020. COVID-19 pandemic and its recovery time of patients in India: A pilot study. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews 14(5), 1205-1211.

Beigel JH, Tomashek KM, Dodd LE, Mehta AK, Zingman BS, Kalil AC, Kline S. 2020. Remdesivir for the treatment of Covid-19 preliminary report. New England Journal of Medicine.

Belhaj S, Zidane L. 2021. Medicinal plants used to boost immunity and decrease the intensity of infection caused by SARS-COV-2 in Morocco. Ethnobot Res Appl 21, 1–17.

Bi Q, Wu Y, Mei S, Ye C, Zou X, Zhang Z, Zhang T. 2020. Epidemiology and transmission of COVID-19 in 391 cases and 1286 of their close contacts in Shenzhen, China: A retrospective cohort study. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 20(8), 911–919.

CDC. 2021. Interim Clinical Guidance for Management of Patients with Confirmed Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/hcp/clinical-guidance-management-patients.html

Chen N, Zhou M, Dong X, Qu J, Gong F, Han Y, Wei Y. 2020. Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: A descriptive study. The Lancet 395(10223), 507–513.

Chowdhury R, Luhar S, Khan N, Choudhury SR, Matin I, Franco OH. 2020. Long-term strategies to control COVID-19 in low and middle-income countries: An options overview of community-based, non-pharmacological interventions. European Journal of Epidemiology 35(8), 743–748.

Chudasama YV, Gillies CL, Zaccardi F, Coles B, Davies MJ, Seidu S, Khunti K. 2020. Impact of COVID-19 on routine care for chronic diseases: A global survey of views from healthcare professionals. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews 14(5), 965–967.

Ciprandi G, Aragona SE. 2020. Non-pharmacological remedies for upper respiratory diseases in the pandemic COVID-19 era. Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents 34(6 Suppl. 1), 41–49.

Cohen M. 2020. Turning up the heat on COVID-19: heat as a therapeutic intervention. F1000Research 9, 292. https://doi.org/10.12688/f1000research.23299.2

Cowling BJ, Ali ST, Ng TWY, Tsang TK, Li JCM, Fong MW, Chiu SS. 2020. Impact assessment of non-pharmaceutical interventions against coronavirus disease 2019 and influenza in Hong Kong: an observational study. The Lancet Public Health 5(5), e279–e288.

Di Matteo G, Spano M, Grosso M, Salvo  A, Ingallina C, Russo M, Ritieni A, Mannina L. 2020. Food and COVID-19: preventive/co-therapeutic strategies explored by current clinical trials and in silico studies. Foods 9, 1036.

Fulop T, Larbi A, Pawelec G. 2013. Human T cell aging and the impact of persistent viral infections. Frontiers in Immunology 4, 271.

Güler AA, Öztürk MA. 2020. COVID-19 in chronic diseases. Gazi Med. J., 266–270.

Hamiduzzaman M, De Bellis A, Abigail W, Kalaitzidis E, Harrington A. 2021. The World Is Not Mine-Barriers to Healthcare Access for Bangladeshi Rural Elderly Women. Journal of Cross-Cultural Gerontology 36(1), 69–89.

Hamiduzzaman M, De Bellis A, Abigail W,  Kalaitzidis E. 2018. Elderly women in rural Bangladesh: Healthcare access and ageing trends. South Asia Research 38(2), 113–129.

Hamiduzzaman M, Islam MR. 2020. Save life or livelihood: Responses to COVID-19 among South-Asian poor communities. Local Development & Society 1(2), 177–189.

Hu Y, Sun J, Dai Z, Deng H, Li X, Huang Q, Xu Y. 2020. Prevalence and severity of corona virus disease 2019 (COVID-19): A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Clinical Virology 127, 104371.

IEDCR. (2021). Coronavirus COVID-19 Dashboard, 2020. Retrieved fromhttp://dashboard.dghs.gov.bd/webportal/pages/covid19.php

Khalili M, Chegeni M, Javadi S, et al. 2020. Therapeutic interventions for COVID-19: A living overview of reviews. Ther Adv Respir Dis 14, 1753466620976021.

Khayyatzadeh SS. 2020. Nutrition and Infection with COVID-19. Journal of Nutrition and Food Security 5(2), 93-96.

Ki M, Nco VT. 2020. Epidemiologic characteristics of early cases with 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) disease in Republic of Korea. Epidemiol. Health 42, e2020007.

Kimball A, Hatfield KM, Arons M, James A, Taylor J, Spicer K, Chisty Z. 2020. Asymptomatic and presymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infections in residents of a long-term care skilled nursing facility-King County, Washington, March 2020. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report 69(13), 377.

Kundu S, Al Banna M, Sayeed A, Begum MR, Brazendale K, Hasan MT, Chowdhury S. 2021. Knowledge, attitudes, and preventive practices toward the COVID-19 pandemic: an online survey among Bangladeshi residents. Journal of Public Health 1-15.

Lechien JR, ChiesaEstomba CM, Place S, Van Laethem Y, Cabaraux P, Mat Q, Hans S. 2020. Clinical and epidemiological characteristics of 1420 European patients with mild‐to‐moderate coronavirus disease 2019. Journal of Internal Medicine 288(3), 335–344.

Long KQ, Hanh HH, Hanh TTT, 2020. Treatment for COVID-19 patients in Vietnam: Analysis of time-to-recovery. Asian Pac. J. Trop Med. 13, 397. DOI: 10.4103/1995-7645.289505

Mungroo MR, Khan NA and Siddiqui R. 2020. Novel coronavirus: Current understanding of clinical features, diagnosis, pathogenesis and treatment options. Pathogens 9(4), 297.

Nasir M, Chowdhury A and Zahan T. 2020. Self-medication during COVID-19 outbreak: A cross sectional online survey in Dhaka city. Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 9(9), 1325–1330.

Nuertey BD, Addai J, Kyei-Bafour P, 2022. Home-Based Remedies to Prevent COVID-19-Associated Risk of Infection, Admission, Severe Disease and Death: A Nested Case-Control Study. Evidence-Based Complement Altern Med 9. https://doi.org/10.1155/2022/4559897

Odusanya OO, Odugbemi BA, Odugbemi TO, Ajisegiri WS. 2020. COVID-19: A review of the effectiveness of non-pharmacological interventions. Nigerian Postgraduate Medical Journal 27(4), 261.

Pani SK, Lin N-H and RavindraBabu S. 2020. Association of COVID-19 pandemic with meteorological parameters over Singapore. Science of The Total Environment 740, 140112.

Pereira AA, De Oliveira Andrade A, De Andrade Palis A,  Cabral AM, Barreto CGL, De Souza DB, Guimarães JFV. 2021. Non-pharmacological treatments for COVID-19: Current status and consensus. Research on Biomedical Engineering 1-16.

Rabby MII. 2020. Current drugs with potential for treatment of COVID-19: A literature review: Drugs for the treatment process of COVID-19. Journal of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences 23, 58–64.

Rahman A, Sathi NJ. 2020. Knowledge, Attitude, and Preventive Practices toward COVID-19 among Bangladeshi Internet Users. Electronic Journal of General Medicine 17(5).

Rahman MM, Bhattacharjee B, Farhana Z, Hamiduzzaman M, Chowdhury MAB, Hossain MS, Uddin MJ. 2021. Age-related risk factors and severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Hygiene 62(2), E329.

Sheahan TP, Sims AC, Leist SR,  Schäfer A, Won J, Brown AJ, Clarke MO. 2020. Comparative therapeutic efficacy of remdesivir and combination lopinavir, ritonavir and interferon beta against MERS-CoV. Nature Communications 11(1), 1–14.

Singh M, Singh M, Jaiswal N, Chauhan A. 2017. Heated, humidified air for the common cold. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 8.

Srichan P, Apidechkul T, Tamornpark R, Yeemard F, Khunthason S, Kitchanapaiboon S, Upala P. 2020. Knowledge, attitude and preparedness to respond to the 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) among the bordered population of northern Thailand in the early period of the outbreak: a cross-sectional study. Available at SSRN 3546046.

Taber KS. 2018. The use of Cronbach’s alpha when developing and reporting research instruments in science education. Res Sci Educ 48, 1273–1296. DOI: 10.1007/s11165-016-9602-2

Tolossa T, Wakuma B, Seyoum Gebre D,  Merdassa Atomssa E, Getachew M, Fetensa G, Turi E. 2021. Time to recovery from COVID-19 and its predictors among patients admitted to treatment center of Wollega University Referral Hospital (WURH), Western Ethiopia: Survival analysis of retrospective cohort study. Plos One 16(6), e0252389.

Verbeek J, Ijaz S, Tikka C, Ruotsalainen J, Mäkelä E, Neuvonen K, Mihalache R. 2018. 303 Personal protective equipment for preventing highly infectious diseases due to exposure to contaminated body fluids in healthcare staff. BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

Voinsky I, Baristaite G, Gurwitz D. 2020. Effects of age and sex on recovery from COVID-19: Analysis of 5769 Israeli patients. Journal of Infection 81(2), e102–e103.

Wang D, Hu B, Hu C, Zhu F, Liu X, Zhang J, Xiong Y. 2020. Clinical characteristics of 138 hospitalized patients with 2019 novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia in Wuhan, China. Jama 323(11), 1061–1069.

Wang M, Cao R, Zhang L, Yang X, Liu J, Xu M, Xiao G. 2020. Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell Research 30(3), 269–271.

WHO. 2020. Infection prevention and control during health care when novel coronavirus (‎nCoV)‎ infections: Is suspected: Interim guidance, 25 January 2020.

Wu J, Li W, Shi X, Chen Z, Jiang B, Liu J, Cui L. 2020. Early antiviral treatment contributes to alleviate the severity and improve the prognosis of patients with novel coronavirus disease (COVID‐19). Journal of Internal Medicine 288(1), 128–138.

Wu Z, McGoogan JM. 2020. Characteristics of and important lessons from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China: summary of a report of 72 314 cases from the Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention. Jama 323(13), 1239–1242.

Yang X, Yu Y, Xu J, Shu H, Liu H, Wu Y, Yu T. 2020. Clinical course and outcomes of critically ill patients with SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a single-centered, retrospective, observational study. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine 8(5), 475–481.

Yu F, Yan L, Wang N, Yang S, Wang L, Tang Y, Xie R. 2020. Quantitative detection and viral load analysis of SARS-CoV-2 in infected patients. Clinical Infectious Diseases 71(15), 793–798.

Zhou F, Yu T, Du R, Fan G, Liu Y, Liu Z, Gu X. 2020 Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: A retrospective cohort study. Lancet 395, 1054–62. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30566-3