Identification of Aspergillus section Flavi and Fumigati in maize grown in Burkina Faso

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/06/2021
Views (288) Download (23)

Identification of Aspergillus section Flavi and Fumigati in maize grown in Burkina Faso

Hamidou Compaore, Serge Samandoulougou, Larissa Yacine Ware, Alima Bambara, Hissein Ratongue, Ignace Sawadogo, Hagrétou Sawadogo-Lingani
Int. J. Biosci.18( 6), 25-36, June 2021.
Certificate: IJB 2021 [Generate Certificate]


Molds are frequent contaminants of foodstuffs. Their presence can alter sanitary and organoleptic qualities of food by secondary metabolites production such as mycotoxins. This study aims to isolate and identify Aspergillus section Flavi and Fumigati such as Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus and Aspergillus fumigatus strains from maize seeds grown in Burkina Faso. Three strains of Aspergillus M1, M2 and M3 were isolated and purified on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) and Sabouraud chloramphenicol agar. The characterization focused on the morphological and microscopic criteria and the aflatoxins production capacity, achieved by blue-green fluorescence under ultraviolet light at 365 nm, of the colonies after three (3) days on coconut agar medium (CMA). Four reference strains served as a basis for comparison, such as Aspergillus flavus UBOCC-A-106031 France, Aspergillus parasiticus var. globosus UBOCC-A-111042 Japan and Aspergillus fumigatus S1, Aspergillus flavus S2 isolated and identified from previous work in Burkina Faso. According to morphological comparison results, the three strains M1, M2 and M3 isolated from maize seeds belong to Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus. Both Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus parasiticus produced aflatoxin.


Blanc M. 2001. Législation communautaire sur les aflatoxines : incidences sur le commerce de l’arachide de bouche et de la pistache. FAO. Alimentation nutrition and Agricultural Anal 28, 16-24.

Cardwell KF. 2000. Mycotoxin contamination in food in Africa : anti nutritional factors. Food and nutrition bulletin, N˚21. ed., p 488-493.

Chabasse D, Bouchra JP, De Gentile L, Brun S, Cimon B, Penn P. 2002. Les moisissures d’intérêt médical. Cahier de formation N° 25, Bioforma. Paris. 160.

Christensen M. 1981. A synoptic Key and evaluation of species in the Aspergillus flavus group. Mycologia 73, 1056-1084.

Compaoré H, Sawadogo-Lingani H, Savadogo A, Dianou D, Traoré SA. 2016a. Isolation and morphological characterization of fungi producing antibacterial substances from local food in Burkina Faso. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Science 10(1), 198-210.

Compaoré H, Sawadogo/Lingani H, Waré LY, Guira F, Samandoulougou S, Savadogo A, Traore AS. 2016b. Morphological and molecular characterization of three fungi strains isolated from locals foods in Burkina Faso. International Journal of Biosciences 9(6), 374-382.

Cooney DG, Emerson R. 1964. Thermophilic fungi: An account of their Biology, Activities and classification. ed. W.H. Freeman and Company. San Francisco, Calif., p 188.

Cotty PJ. 1994. Comparison of four media for the isolation of Aspergillus flavus group fungi. Mycopathologia 125, 157-162.

Davis ND, Iyer SK, Diener UL. 1987. Improved method of screening for aflatoxin with a coconut agar medium. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 53, 1593-1595.

Doster MA, Cotty PJ, Michailides TJ. 2009. Description of a distinctive Aflatoxin-producing strain of Aspergillus nomius that produces submerged sclerotia. Mycopathologia 168, 193-201.

Frisvad JC, Skouboe P, Samson RA. 2005. Taxonomic comparison of three different groups of aflatoxin producers and a new efficient producer of aflatoxin B1, sterigmatocystin and 3-Omethylsterigmatocystin, Aspergillus rambellii sp. nov. Systematic and Applied Microbiology 28, 442-453.

Gao H, Liu M, Liu J, Dai H, Zhou X, Liu X. 2009. Medium optimization for the Production of Avermectin B1a by Streptomyces Avermitilis 14-12A Using Response Surface Methodology. Bioresource Technology 100, 4012-4016.

Gao J, Liu Z, Yu J. 2007. Identification of Aspergillus section Flavi in maize in northeastern China. Mycopathologia 164, 91-95.

Garba K, Adeoti K, Hodonou A, Tidjani A, Hounhouigan J, Toukourou F. 2014. Study of sanitary of Groundnut oil and Peanut cakes from Agonlin Plateau : Identification of critical control points during Groundnut craft transformation. Microbiologie Hygiène Alimentaire 75, 17-21.

Glodjinon NM, Noumavo PA, Adéoti K, Savi H, Garba K, Kouhoundé SS, Toukourou F, Baba-Moussa L, Savadogo A, Baba-Mousa F. 2020. Mold Occurrence in Fresh Chilli Pepper (Capsicum spp.) Harvested Directly in the Field in Benin Republic. European Scientific Journal 16(3), 177-200.

Hocking AD. 1982. Aflatoxigenic fungi and their detection. Food Technology in  Australia 34, 1- 3.

Ito Y, Peterson SW, Wicklow DT, Goto T. 2001. Aspergillus pseudotamarii, a new aflatoxin producing species in Aspergillus section Flavi. Mycological Research 105, 233-239.

Johnsson P, Lindblad M, Thim AM, Jonsson N, Vargas EA, Medeiros NL, Brabet C, Quaresma de Araújo M, Olsen M. 2008. Growth of aflatoxigenic moulds and aflatoxin formation in Brazil nuts. World Mycotoxin Journal 1(2), 127-137.

Klich MA, Samson RA. 2009. Members of ICPA (International Commission on Penicillium and Aspergillus). Aspergillus Reference cultures. Available at: 7p. site web consulted in March 2009.

Klich MA, Mullaney EJ, Daly CB, Cary JW. 2000. Molecular and physiological aspects of aflatoxin and sterigmatocystin biosynthesis by Aspergillus tamarii and A. ochraceoroseus. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology 53, 605-609.

Lamrani K, Lakhtar H, Ismaili Alaoui M, Ettalibi M, Boiron P, Augur C, Gaime Perraud I, Roussos S. 2008. Production of fumagillin by Aspergillus fumigatus isolated from traditional trituration units, ”Maasra”, in Morocco Micologia Aplicada International 20(1), 35-41.

Nguyen HP, Nguyen QT, Brian O, Hans P. 2015. Aflatoxins, Fumonisins and Zearalenone contamination of maize in the Southeastern and Central Highlands Provinces of Vietnam. Agriculture, 5, 1195-1203.

Nguyen M. 2007. Identification des espèces de moisissures, potentiellement productrices de mycotoxines dans le riz commercialisé dans cinq provinces de la région centrale du vietnam – étude des conditions pouvant réduire la production des mycotoxines. Thèse de Doctorat, Université de Toulouse, Toulouse, 147 p.

Nikiéma PA, Traoré AS, Singh B. 1995. Etude de la contamination de graines d’arachide par des aflatoxines produites au cours du stockage. Journal of Agricultural Research and Crop Biotechnology 1, 2-16.

Nyongesa BW, Okoth S, Ayugi V. 2015. Identification Key for Aspergillus species isolated from maize and soil of Nandi county, Kenya. Advances in Microbiology 5, 205-229.

Ouattara-Sourabie PB, Nikiema PA, Traore AS. 2011. Caractérisation de souches d’Aspergillus spp isolées des graines d’arachides cultivées au Burkina Faso, Afrique de l’Ouest. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Science 5(3), 1232-1249.

Ouattara-Sourabié PB. 2018. Inhibition de la croissance et de la production d’aflatoxines chez Aspergillus spp. par des extraits de plantes (Cymbopogon citratus, Cymbopogon giganteus et Hyptis spicigera). Thèse unique de Doctorat, Université Ouaga I Pr Joseph Ki-Zerbo, Burkina Faso,  p 154.

Peterson SW, Ito Y, Horn BW, Goto T. 2001. Aspergillus bombycis, a new aflatoxigenic species and genetic variation in its sibling species, Aspergillus nomius. Mycologia 93, 689-703.

Pitt JI, Hocking AD, Glenn DR. 1983. An improved medium for detection of Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus. parasiticus. Journal of Applied Bacteriology 54, 109-114.

Raper KB, Fennell DI. 1965. The Genus Aspergillus. ed. The Williams and Wilkins Company. P 686.

Sanou D. 2000. Etude de la prévalence des mycotoxines dans les produits agricoles du Burkina Faso : Cas de la contamination du maïs (zea mays L.) par les aflatoxines et les fumonisines dans l’Ouest du Burkina. Mémoire de DEA, Université de Ouagadougou, p 59.

Waré LY, Durand N, Nikiema PA, Alter P, Fontana A, Montet D, Barro N. 2017. Occurrence of mycotoxins in commercial infant formulas locally produced in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso). Food Control 73, 518-523.

Yizhi F, Bu T, Minhao P, Yingchao L, Jingao D. 2011.Occurrence of major mycotoxins in maize from Hebei Province, China. Frontiers of Agriculture in China 5(4), 497-503.

Zinedine A. 2004. Détermination des mycotoxines dans les aliments et étude de la réduction des Aflatoxines par les bactéries lactiques isolées des ferments panaires traditionnels. Thèse de Doctorat, Université Sidi Mohammed Ben Abdellah, Maroc, 162 p.