Identification of Plasmodium falciparum in anemic patients with special reference to pregnancy

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/08/2016
Views (204) Download (5)
current_issue_feature_image
publication_file

Identification of Plasmodium falciparum in anemic patients with special reference to pregnancy

Naseem Rafique, Anum Imran, Luqman Khan
J. Bio. Env. Sci.9( 2), 113-121, August 2016.
Certificate: JBES 2016 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

Anemia is a universal health hitch in developing as well as developed countries with main effects on human health as well as social and financial progress. Anemia is the decrease in the hemoglobin concentration of blood lower than normal range estimated for individual of different age and sex. Anemia is associated with parasitic infection caused by Plasmodium falciparum, a group of parasitic protozoan and transmitted by bite of female anopheles mosquito affecting 300 to 500 million new cases each year. In present study, a total of 50 anemic patients with suspected Plasmodium falciparum in their blood were studied from September to December 2015 in District Mardan, Khyber PukhtunKhwa, Pakistan. The microscopic examination showed overall positive result with 68% of anemic patients. It showed that female anemic patients having Plasmodium falciparum in blood were 46% and male anemic patients were 22%. The most vulnerable groups in this study were children with 42% and pregnant women with 16 % while the adult with 26% and non-pregnant women with 4% were recorded. It was concluded in the present study that Plasmodium falciparum was the causative agent of anemia in the project area.

VIEWS 5

Allen LH, Gillespie SR. 2001. What works? A review of the efficacy and effectiveness of nutrition interventions.

Awan MM, Akbar MA, Khan MI. 2004. A study of anemia in pregnant women of railway colony, Multan. Pak J Med Res 43(1), 11-14.

Bouma M, Dye C, Van der Kaay H. 1996. Falciparum malaria and climate change in the Northwest Frontier Province of Pakistan. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene.

Bouma MJ, Parvez S, Nesbit R, Winkler A. 1996. Malaria control using permethrin applied to tents of nomadic Afghan refugees in northern Pakistan. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 74(4), 413.

Cowman AF, Crabb BS. 2006. Invasion of red blood cells by malaria parasites. Cell 124(4), 755-766.

Dondorp A, Angus B, Chotivanich K, Silamut K, Ruangveerayuth R, Hardeman M, Kager P, Vreeken J, White N. 1999. Red blood cell deformability as a predictor of anemia in severe falciparum malaria. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 60(5), 733-737.

English M, Waruiru C, Marsh K. 1996. Transfusion for respiratory distress in life-threatening childhood malaria. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene 55(5), 525-530.

Galloway R, Dusch E, Elder L, Achadi E, Grajeda R, Hurtado E, Favin M, Kanani S, Marsaban J, Meda N. 2002. Women’s perceptions of iron deficiency and anemia prevention and control in eight developing countries. Social science & medicine 55(4), 529-544.

Getachew M, Yewhalaw D, Tafess K, Getachew Y, Zeynudin A. 2012. Anaemia and associated risk factors among pregnant women in Gilgel Gibe dam area, Southwest Ethiopia. Parasites & vectors 5(1), 1.

Gething PW, Elyazar IR, Moyes CL, Smith DL, Battle KE, Guerra CA, Patil AP, Tatem AJ, Howes RE, Myers MF. 2012. A long neglected world malaria map: Plasmodium vivax endemicity in 2010. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 6(9), e1814.

Guerra CA, Gikandi PW, Tatem AJ, Noor AM, Smith DL, Hay SI, Snow RW. 2008. The limits and intensity of Plasmodium falciparum transmission: implications for malaria control and elimination worldwide. PLoS Med 5(2), e38.

Haniff J, Das A, Onn LT, Sun CW, Nordin NM, Rampal S, Bahrin S, Ganeslingam M, Kularatnam KIK, Zaher ZMM. 2007. Anemia in pregnancy in Malaysia: a cross-sectional survey. Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 16(3), 527-536.

Kakar Q, Khan M, Bile K. 2010. Malaria control in Pakistan: new tools at hand but challenging epidemiological realities. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 16, S54.

Kondrachine A, Trigg P. 1997. Global overview of malaria. The Indian journal of medical research 106, 39-52.

Lefferts WK. 2014. Effects of Nitrate Supplementation on Cognitive and Cerebrovascular Function at Simulated High Altitude.

Lone FW, Qureshi RN, Emanuel F. 2004. Maternal anaemia and its impact on perinatal outcome. Tropical Medicine & International Health 9(4), 486-490.

Manguin S, Carnevale P, Mouchet J, Coosemans M, Julvez J, Richard-Lenoble D, Sircoulon J. 2008. Biodiversity of malaria in the world.

Marsh K, Forster D, Waruiru C, Mwangi I, Winstanley M, Marsh V, Newton C, Winstanley P, Warn P, Peshu N. 1995. Indicators of life-threatening malaria in African children. New England journal of medicine, 332(21), 1399-1404.

McDevitt M, Xie J, Gordeuk V, Bucala R. 2004. The anemia of malaria infection: role of inflammatory cytokines. Current hematology reports 3(2), 97-106.

Memon AR, Afsar S. 2006. Thrombocytopenia in hospitalized malaria patients. Pakistan Journal of Medical Sciences, 22(2), 141.

Menendez C, Fleming A, Alonso P. 2000. Malaria-related anaemia. Parasitology today, 16(11), 469-476.

Milman N. 2011. Anemia—Still a major health problem in many parts of the world! Annals of hematology 90(4), 369-377.

Mindell J, Moody A, Ali A, Hirani V. 2013. Using longitudinal data from the Health Survey for England to resolve discrepancies in thresholds for haemoglobin in older adults. British journal of haematology 160(3), 368-376.

Mujahid C, Arif M. 1998. Malaria situation in Pakistan to brief on National control programme. Pakistan J Med Res, 98(37), 4.

Organization WH. 1992. The prevalence of anaemia in women: a tabulation of available information.

Osungbade KO, Oladunjoye AO. 2012. Anaemia in Developing Countries: Burden and Prospects of Prevention and Control: Citeseer.

Perlmann P, Troye-Blomberg M. 1999. Malaria blood-stage infection and its control by the immune system. Folia biologica 46(6), 210-218.

Rifkind JM, Nagababu E. 2013. Hemoglobin redox reactions and red blood cell aging. Antioxidants & redox signaling 18(17), 2274-2283.

Scanlon KS, Yip R, Schieve LA, Cogswell ME. 2000. High and low hemoglobin levels during pregnancy: differential risks for preterm birth and small for gestational age. Obstetrics & Gynecology 96(5), 741-748.

Smith DL. 2009. Anemia in the elderly. Iron disorders institute guide to anemia 9, 96-103.

Soyinka O, Taylor O, Way SS. 2008. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording and/or otherwise, without prior written permission of the Federal Ministry of Health, Nigeria.

Stoltzfus RJ, Dreyfuss ML. 1998. Guidelines for the use of iron supplements to prevent and treat iron deficiency anemia: Ilsi Press Washington^ eDC DC.