International network for natural sciences – research journal
  • mendeley icon
  • linkedin icon
  • google plus icon
  • twitter icon
  • google scholar icon
  • facebook icon

Infestation and damage of black nightshade (Solanum nigrum) by black bean aphid (Aphis fabae) and red spider mite (Tetranychus evansi)

By: Jared K Ngurwe1, Fredrick ME Wanjala2, Dennis MW Ochieno1, Gaudencia J Kiptoo

Key Words: Solanum nigrum, Tetranychus evansi, Cattle manure, Chicken manure, Cultivars.

Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res. 13(5), 79-88, November 2018.

Certification: ijaar 2018 0169 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

The black nightshade, Solanum nigrum Linn. (Solanaceae), is a widely distributed tropical plant used as a nutritive vegetable and herbal medicine in East Africa. This plant expresses high levels of secondary metabolites such as steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGA) and phytoalexins, which offer protection against pests and microbial pathogens. However, insect pests especially the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Linnaeus (Homoptera, Aphididae) and the red spider mite Tetranychus evansi Linnaeus. (Acarina, Tetranychidae), have become a major problem for S. nigrum Linnaeus, especially with the improved cultivars that are being adopted in western Kenya. The current research evaluated the potential of onion (Allium cepa Linnaeus) extracts and farmyard manures in the integrated control of A. fabae Linnaeus and T. evansi Linnaeus infesting three S. nigrum Linnaeus cultivars in western Kenya. The study was conducted within Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology farm, in Kakamega County, western Kenya. The experiment was a randomized block design. Two cultivars of S. nigrum var. scabrum Linnaeus and one cultivar of S. nigrum var. nigrum Linnaeus were used. Data was analyzed using SAS version 9.1. The number of aphids was highest in cultivar B (Solanum nigrum var. nigrum Linnaeus). Plants grown with cattle manure grew better than those grown with chicken manure or without manure. Pest populations were high in plants grown with chicken manure, especially cultivar B, showing a preference that occurs during the presence of non-preferred hosts. Application of onion extracts reduced pest populations, and cultivars F and M tended to have the best effect.

| Views 70 |

Infestation and damage of black nightshade (Solanum nigrum) by black bean aphid (Aphis fabae) and red spider mite (Tetranychus evansi)

Adebooye OC, Opabode JT. 2004. Status of conservation of the indigenous leaf vegetables and fruits of Africa. African Journal of Biotechnology 3(12), 700-705.

Agarwala BS, Ghosh MR. 1985. Biogeographical considerations of Indian Aphidae (Homoptera). New Series 31, 81-96.

Akhtar YR, Yeoung MB, Isman. 2007. Comparative bioactivity of selected extracts from Meliaceae and some commercial botanical insecticides against two noctuid caterpillars, Trichoplusia ni and Pseudaletia unipuncta. Phytochem Rev (2008) 7, 77-88 DOI 10.1007/s11101.

Alan MacLeod. 2008 Central science laboratory. Pest risk analysis for Tetranychus evansi. Sand Hutton, York Y041 ILZ, UK.

Altieri Miguel A, Clara I, Nicholls. 2003. Soil fertility management and insect pests: harmonizing soil and plant health in agroecosystems Soil & Tillage Research 72, 203-211.

Amtmann A, Troufflard S, Armengaud P. 2008. The effect of potassium nutrition on pest and disease resistance in plants. Physiol Plant 133(4), 682-91.

Arnault I, Vey F, Fleurance C, Nabil H, Auger J. 2008. Soil fumigation with Allium sulfur volatiles and Allium by-products. 16th IFOAM Organic World Congress, Modena, Italy June 16 -20.

Ben-David TS, Melamed U, Gerson and Morin S. 2007. ITS2 as barcodes for identifying and analyzing spider mites (Acari, Tetranychidae). Experimental and Applied Acarology 41, 169-181.

Blackman RL, Eastop VF. 2006. Aphids on the world’s herbacious plants and shrubs. Vols. 1 and 2. John Wiley and Sons.

Brisson AJ, Davis GK. 2008. Pea Aphid. Faculty publications in the biological sciences Paper 77.

Catherine Nicholas. 2007. The most extreme bugs. John Wiley and sons. P. 61 ISBN 978-07879-8663-6.

Chandrashekhar Jagtap, Rajeshree Patil, Prajapati PK. 2013. Brief review on therapeutic potentials of Kakamachi (Solanum nigrum Linn.). Ayurpharm Int J Ayur Alli Sc., No.2 pp22-32.

Crystal D Grover, Kathleen C Dayton, Sean B Menke, David A Holway. 2008. Effects of aphids on foliar foraging by Argentine ants and the resulting effects on other arthropods. Ecological Entomology 33, 101-106.

Daniel H Gillman. 2005. Sooty mold. University of Massachusetts Amhherst.

Denise Lim and John Pickering. 2008. Formicidae – Ants. University of Georgia, Athens.

Dik AJ, van Pelt JA. 1992. Interaction between phyllosphre yeast, aphid honeydew and fungicide effectiveness in wheat under field conditions. Plant Pathology 41(6), 661-675.

Edmonds JM, Chweya JA. 1997. Black nightshades: Solanum nigrum L. and related species: promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops. Rome, Italy: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute (IPGRI).

Edmonds JM, Chweya JA. 1997. Black Nightshades. Solanum nigrum L. and Related Species. (Gatersleben, Germany: Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research/Rome: International Plant Genetic Resources Institute).

FORMAT. 2003. Forum for Organic Resource Management and Agricultural Technologies. Organic Resource Management, Chapter 17.

Foster RF, Obermeyer J. 2010. Vegetable insects. Managing insects in the home vegetable garden. Purdue extension.

Fréchette B, Bejan M, Lucas É, Giordanengo P, Vincent C. 2010. Resistance of wild Solanum accessions to aphids and other potato pests in Quebec field conditions. Journal of Insect Science: Vol. 10, Article 16/ www.insectscience.org 1.

George C, McGavin. 1993. Bugs of the worid. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 0-8160-2737-4.

Gohole Linnet S, Steve Yeninek, Silvia A Omasaja, Simon Kiarie, Elizabeth Omami, Pamela Obura, Steve Waller, Jim Simon, Maria Marshall. 2013. Sustainable African Indigenous Vegetable Production and Market -Chain Development for Improved Health and Nutrition and Income Generation by Smallholder Farmers in Kenya, Tanzania and Zambia. Hort; CRISP; USAID.

Gregg A, Howe and Andreas Schaller. 2008. Direct defenses in plants and their induction by wounding and insect herbivores. Springer science and business media B.V. pp7.

Hammond-Kosack KE, Parker JE. 2003. Deciphering plant-pathogen communication: Fresh perspectives for molecular resistance breeding. Curr Opin Biotechnol 14, 177-193.

Hannan T, Reynolds and Tom Volk. 2007. Sporias spongiosa, the beach aphid poop eater. Tom Volks fungus of the month. Wisconsin – La Crosse.

Hasan MR, Ahmad M, Rahman MH, Haque MA. 2009. Aphid incidence and its correlation with different environmental factors. J. Bangladesh Agril. Univ 7(1), 15-18.

Hauser TP, Christensen S, Heimes C, Kiaer P. 2013. Combined effects of arthropod herbivores and phytopathogens on plant performance. Functional Ecology 27, 623-632.

Herron G, Rophail J, Wilson. 2004. Resistance monitoring in two-spotted mite: cotton seasons 2001/2002 and 2002/2003. In: (Crop Protection) “Quality Cotton” – A Living Industry. 12th Australian Cotton Conference10 – 12th August 2004, Gold Coast Convention and Exhibition Centre, CD ROM.

Hoffmann H, Learnonth S, Wood P. 2004. Common insect pests and diseases on vegetables in the home garden. Bulletin No. 4624.

Linda M, Hooper-Bui. 2008. Ant. World book encyclopedia. ISBN 978-0-0108-1.

Luong Minh Chau, Heong KL. 2005. Effects of organic fertilizers on insect pest and diseases of rice. Cuullong Delta Rice Research Institute Co Do, Can Tho, Vietnam International Rice Research Institute. Omonrice 13, 26-33.

Marava P. 2012. Host Discrimination by the Green Peach Aphid (Myzus persicae Sulzer) Complex and Relative Importance of Non-Colonizing Aphid Species in the Transmission of Bushy-top and PVY in Tobacco. A thesis for Master of Science degree in Tropical Entomology. Department of Biological Sciences University of Zimbabwe.

Marschner H. 1995. 2nd ed. Mineral nutrition of higher plants. Academic Press. London 185, 454-455.

McCain, Christy M, Grytnes John-Arvid. 2010 Elevational gradients in species richness. In: Encyclopedia of life Science (ELS). John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester

Mochiah MB, Baidoo PK, Owusu-Akyaw M. 2011. Influence of different nutrient applications on insect populations and damage to cabbage. J. Adv. Biosci 38, 2564-2572.

Nagappan R. 2012. Impact of Melia azedarach Linn (Meliaceae) dry fruit extract, farmyard manure and nitrogenious fertilizer application against aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae Linn.). (Homoptera, Aphididae) in home garden. Assian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 4(3), 193-197.

Naluyange V. 2014. Compatibility of Rhozobium inoculants with water hyacinth manure formulations in common bean and consequences on Aphis fabae and Colletotricum lindemuthianum infestations.

Nelson Enrique Casas-Leal, Franco Alirio Vallejo-Cabrera, Edgar Iván Estrada-Salazar. 2013. Mechanisms of resistance to Neoleucinodes elegantalis (Guenée) in wild germplasm of the genus Solanum. Agronomía Colombiana 31(2), 153-160.

Okole BN, Odhav B. 2004. Commercialization of plants in Africa. South African Journal of Botany, Special issue 70(1), 109-115.

Patriquin DG, Baines D, Abboud A. 1995. Diseases, pests and soil fertility. In Soil Management in Sustainable Agriculture, Edited by HF Cook & HC Lee, Wye College Press, Wye, England pp.161-174.

Pompon Julien, Dan Quiring, Philippe Giordanengo, Yvan Pelletier. 2010. Role of host-plant selection in resistance of wild Solanum species to Macrosiphum euphorbiae And Myzus persicae. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata1 37, 73-85.

Prasannath K, Mahendran S. 2013. Efficacy of botanicals on the control of cowpea pests. Proceedings of the International Conference of Eastern University, Sri Lanka.

Raja Nagappan. 2012. Impact of Melia azedarach Linn. (Meliaceae) Dry Fruit Extract, Farmyard Manure and Nitrogenous Fertilizer Application against Cabbage Aphid Brevicornye brassicae Linn. (Homoptera: Aphididae) in Home Garden. Asian Journal of Agricultural Sciences 4(3), 193-197, 2012 ISSN: 2041-3890.

Sanford LL, Deahl KL, Sinden SL, Ladd TL. 1992. Glycoalkaloid contents in tubers from Solanum tuberosum populations selected for potato leafhopper resistance. Am potato J. 69, 693-703.

Sarwar M. 2012. Effects of potassium fertilization in population build up on rice stem borers (Lepidopteran pests) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) yield. Journal of cereals and oil seeds Vol.3(1), pp 6-9.

Schippers RR. 2000. African indigenous vegetables: an overview of the cultivated species. Chatham, U.K: Natural Resources Institute/ACP-EU Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation.

Schippers RR. 2002. African indigenous vegetables: an overview of the cultivated species. Rev. Ed. [CD-ROM]. Chatham, UK: Natural Resources Institute/ACP-EU Technical Centre for Agricultural and Rural Cooperation.

Stoll G. 2000. Natural Crop Protection in the Tropics Margraf Verlag. Weikersheim p. 172.

Suganthy M, Sakthivel P. 2012. Efficacy of botanical pesticides against major pests of black nightshade, Solanum nigrum Linn. International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences 3(3), (B) 220-228.

Thatcher LF, Anderson JP, Singh KB. 2005. Plant defense responses: What have we learnt from Arabidopsis. Funct Plant Biol 32, 1-19.

Timothy M, Spann and Arnold, Schumann W. 2010. Disease and Pest Resistance/Soil Fertility and Plant Nutrition. Plant Biology.

Timothy M. Spann and Arnold Schumann W. 2013. Mineral Nutrition Contributes to Plant Disease and Pest Resistance.

Vijayalakshmi K, Subhashini B, Koul S. 1999. Plants in Pest Control: Garlic and onion. Centre for Indian Knowledge Systems, Chennai, India pp. 30-32.

Yi Sun, Ying Zhao, Lei Wang, Hongxiang Lou, Aixia Cheng. 2012. Cloning and expression biosynthesis from Solanum nigrum 6(5), 242-248.

Jared K Ngurwe1, Fredrick ME Wanjala2, Dennis MW Ochieno1, Gaudencia J Kiptoo.
Infestation and damage of black nightshade (Solanum nigrum) by black bean aphid (Aphis fabae) and red spider mite (Tetranychus evansi).
Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res. 13(5), 79-88, November 2018.
https://innspub.net/ijaar/infestation-damage-black-nightshade-solanum-nigrum-black-bean-aphid-aphis-fabae-red-spider-mite-tetranychus-evansi/
Copyright © 2018
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
https://innspub.net
brand
innspub logo
english language editing
  • CALL FOR PAPERS
    CALL FOR PAPERS
    Publish Your Article
  • CALL FOR PAPERS
    CALL FOR PAPERS
    Submit Your Article
INNSPUB on FB
Email Update