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Infestation and damage of black nightshade (Solanum nigrum) by black bean aphid (Aphis fabae) and red spider mite (Tetranychus evansi)

Research Paper | November 1, 2018

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Jared K Ngurwe1, Fredrick ME Wanjala2, Dennis MW Ochieno1, Gaudencia J Kiptoo

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Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res.13( 5), 79-88, November 2018


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The black nightshade, Solanum nigrum Linn. (Solanaceae), is a widely distributed tropical plant used as a nutritive vegetable and herbal medicine in East Africa. This plant expresses high levels of secondary metabolites such as steroidal glycoalkaloids (SGA) and phytoalexins, which offer protection against pests and microbial pathogens. However, insect pests especially the black bean aphid Aphis fabae Linnaeus (Homoptera, Aphididae) and the red spider mite Tetranychus evansi Linnaeus. (Acarina, Tetranychidae), have become a major problem for S. nigrum Linnaeus, especially with the improved cultivars that are being adopted in western Kenya. The current research evaluated the potential of onion (Allium cepa Linnaeus) extracts and farmyard manures in the integrated control of A. fabae Linnaeus and T. evansi Linnaeus infesting three S. nigrum Linnaeus cultivars in western Kenya. The study was conducted within Masinde Muliro University of Science and Technology farm, in Kakamega County, western Kenya. The experiment was a randomized block design. Two cultivars of S. nigrum var. scabrum Linnaeus and one cultivar of S. nigrum var. nigrum Linnaeus were used. Data was analyzed using SAS version 9.1. The number of aphids was highest in cultivar B (Solanum nigrum var. nigrum Linnaeus). Plants grown with cattle manure grew better than those grown with chicken manure or without manure. Pest populations were high in plants grown with chicken manure, especially cultivar B, showing a preference that occurs during the presence of non-preferred hosts. Application of onion extracts reduced pest populations, and cultivars F and M tended to have the best effect.


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Infestation and damage of black nightshade (Solanum nigrum) by black bean aphid (Aphis fabae) and red spider mite (Tetranychus evansi)

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