Mastication: An Oral Physiology of Food Processing in Mouth
By: Sarvesh Rustagi
Key Words: Chewing, masseter muscles, texture, oral.
Int. J. Biosci. 18(3), 193-204, March 2021.
Certification: ijb 2021 0187 [Generate Certificate]
The objective of this study was to understand the concept of mastication in terms of its relation to neuromuscular activities, perception towards texture of food and changes in food properties. During mastication coordination between teeth, lips, gums, tongue, cheek, palate, salivary glands and muscle of the jaws is required. Mastication is one of the neurological and physiological based complex process, which involves the activities of facial, elevator and suprahyoidal muscles along with movement of tongue which results in rhythmic mandibular movements with breakdown of food. The pattern of human subject’s chewing behavior during mastication also affects the perception of food texture. During mastication physical properties of food keep on changing in the oral cavity, so the mastication variables can be analyzed at different stages of mastication (early, middle and late). A number of methods are used for the analysis of mastication patterns. The study of mastication process has an important role in the food texture perception and its acceptance by the consumers.
Mastication: An Oral Physiology of Food Processing in Mouth
Ahlgren J. 1966. Mechanisms of mastication: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 44, 1-109.
Atherton M, Bellis-Smith N, Cichero IAY, Suter M. 2007. Texture-modified foods and thickened fluids as used for individuals with dysphagia – australian standardized labels and definitions. Journal of Nutrition and Dietitians 64, 53-76.
Bourne MC. 1977. Compression rates in the mouth. Journal of Texture Studies 8, 373-376.
Bourne MC. 1982. Food texture and viscosity- concept and measurement. Academic Press London, 33-35.
Boyar MM, Kilcast D. 1986a. Electromyography as a novel method for examing food texture. Journal of Food Science 51, 859-860.
Boyar MM, Kilcast D. 1986b. Food texture and dental science. Journal of Texture Studies 17, 221-252.
Brown WE. 1994. Method to investigate differences in chewing behaviour in humans: 1. Use of electromyography in measuring chewing. Journal of Texture Studies 25, 1-16.
Brown WE, Braxton D. 2000. Dynamics of food breakdown during eating in relation to perceptions of texture and preference: a study on biscuits. Journal of Food Quality and Preference 11, 259-267.
Brown WE, Dauchel C, Wakeling I. 1996. Influence of chewing efficiency on texture and flavour perceptions of food. Journal of Texture Studies 27, 433-450.
Brown WE, Langley KR, Martin A, Macfie HJH. 1994a. Characterisation of patterns of chewing behaviour in human subjects and their influence on texture perception. Journal of Texture Studies 4, 445-468.
Brown WE, Shearn M, Macfie HJH. 1994b. Method to investigate differences in chewing behaviour in humans: II. Use of electromyographic during chewing to assess chewing behavior. Journal of Texture Studies 25, 17-31.
Cakir E, Koc H, Vinyard CJ, Essick G, Daubert CR, Drake M, Foegeding A. 2011. Evaluation of texture changes due to compositional differences using oral processing. Journal of Texture Studies 43, 257-267.
Christensen CM. 1984. Food texture perception. Advances in Food Research 29, 159-199.
Ericsson KA, Lehmann AC. 1996. Expert and exceptional performance: evidence of maximal adaptation to task constraints. Annual Review of Psychology 47, 273-305.
Felix GB, Filho HN, Padovani CR, Junior AST, Machado WM. 2008. Electromyographic evaluation of mastication and swallowing in elderly individuals with mandibular fixed implant supported prostheses. Journal of Applied Oral Science 16, 116–121.
Geldard FA. 1972. The skin and its stimuli. Human Sense, 258-289.
Goldstone RL. 1998. Perceptual learning. Annual Review of Psychology 49, 585-612.
Gonzalez R, Sifre S, Benedito J, Nogues V. 2002. Comparison of electromyographic pattern of sensory experts and untrained subjects during chewing of mohan cheese. Journal of Dairy Research 69, 151-161.
Guinard JX, Mazzucchelli R. 1996. The sensory perception of texture and mouthfeel. Trends in Food Science and Technology 7, 213-219.
Heath MR. 1982. The effect of maximum biting force and bone loss upon masticatory function and dietary selection of the elderly. International Dental Journal 32, 345-356.
Helgesen H, Solheim R, Naes T. 1997. Consumer preference mapping of dry fermented lamb sausage. Food Quality and Preference 8, 97-109.
Helkimo E, Carlsson GE, Helkimo M. 1978. Chewing efficiency and state of dentition. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica 36, 33-41.
Hiiemae K. 2004. Mechanism of food reduction, transport and deglutition: How the texture of food affects feeding behavior. Journal of Texture Studies 35, 171-200.
Horio T, Kawamura Y. 1989. Effects of texture of food on chewing patterns in the human subject. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 16, 177-183.
Hutching JB, Lillford PJ. 1988. The perception of food texture-the philosophy of the breakdown path. Journal of Texture Studies 19, 103-115.
Jessop B, Sider K, Lee T, Mittal GS. 2006. Feasibility of the acoustic/EMG system for the analysis of Instrumental food texture. Journal of Food
Properties 9, 273-285.
Karkazis HC, Kossioni AE. 1997. Re-examination of the surface EMG activity of the masseter muscles in young adults during chewing of two test foods.Journal of Oral Rehabilitation 24, 216-223.
Karkazis HC, Kossioni AE. 1998. Surface EMG activity of the master muscles in denture wearers during chewing of hard and soft food. Journal of Oral Rehabilation 25, 8-14.
Kawamura Y. 1964. Recent concepts of the physiology of mastication: Advances in Oral Biology 1, 77-109.
Kemsley EK, Defernez M, Sprunt JC, Smith AC. 2003. Electromyographic responses to prescribed mastication. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology 13, 197-207.
Kohyama K. 2004. Chewing behaviour observed at different stages of mastication for six foods, studies by electromyography and jaw kinematics in young and elderly subjects. Journal of Texture Studies 35, 395-414.
Kohyama K, Mioche L, Martin JF. 2002. Chewing patterns of various texture foods studies by electromyography in young and elderly population. Journal of Texture Studies 33, 269-283.
Kohyama K, Ohtsubo K, Toyoshima H. 1998. Electromyographic studies on cooked rice with different amylose content. Journal of Texture Studies 29, 101-113.
Kohyama K, Sasaki T, Hayakawa F. 2008. Characterisation of food physical properties by the mastication parameters measured by electromyography of the jaw closing muscles and mandibular kinematics in young adults, Journal of Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry 72, 1690-1695.
Kohyama K, Sawada H, Nonaka C, Hayakawa F, Sasaki T. 2007. Texture evaluation of rice cake by chewing and swallowing measurements on human subjects, Journal of Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry 71, 358-365.
Kohyama K, Sodhi NS, Sasaki T, Suzuki K. 2014. Effects of milling ratio and water to rice ratio on mastication effort for cooked rice measured by electromyography. Journal of Texture Studies 45, 477-486.
Kohyama K, Sodhi NS, Suzuki K, Sasaki T. 2016. Texture evaluation of cooked rice prepared from Japanese cultivars using two-bite instrumental test and electromyography. Journal of Texture Studies 47, 188-198.
Kohyama K, Yamaguchi M, Kobori C, Nakayama Y, Hayakawa F, Sasaki T. 2005. Mastication effort estimated by electromyography for cooked rice of differing water content. Journal of Bioscience, Biotechnology and Biochemistry 69, 1669-1676.
Lucas PW, Prinz JF, Agrawl KR, Bruce IC. 2004. Food texture and its effect on ingestion, mastication and swallowing. Journal of Texture Studies 35, 159-170.
Lund JP. 1991. Mastication and its control by the brain stem. Critical Reviews in Oral Biology and Medicine 2, 33-64.
Manly RS. 1951. Factors affecting masticatory performance and efficiency among young adults. Journal of Dental Research 30, 874-882.
Mathevon E, Mioche L, Brown WE, Culioli J. 1995. Texture analysis of beef cooked at various temperatures by mechanical measurements, sensory assessments and electromyography. Journal of Texture Studies 26, 175-192.
Mathoniere C, Mioche L, Dransfield E, Culioli
- 2000. Meat texture characterisation: Comparison of chewing patterns, Sensory and Mechanical measures. Journal of Texture Studies 31, 183-203.
Mioche M, Bourdiol P, Martin JF. 1995. Mastication patterns recorded for different food textures during free style or deliberate sided mastication. Poster presented on 2ndPangborn Sensory Science Symposium, 30 July-3August, University of California, Davis, CA.
Miyaoka Y, Ashida I, Tamaki Y, Kawakami S, Iwamori H, Yamazaki T, Ito N. 2013. Analysis of masseter activity patterns using TP values during chewing of food with different shapes and textural properties. Journal of Texture Studies 44, 196-204.
Miyawaki S, Ohkochi N, Kawakami, Sugimura M. 2000. Effect of food size on the movement of the mandibular first molars and condyles during deliberate unilateral mastication in humans. Journal of Dental Research 79, 1525-1531.
Morell P, Hernando I, Fiszman SM. 2014. Understanding the Relevance of in-mouth food processing. A Review of in Vitro Techniques. Journal of Trends in Food Science & Technology 35, 18-31.
Pangborn RM, Lundgren B. 1977. Salivary secretion in response to mastication of crisp bread. Journal of Texture Studies 8, 463-472.
Pedersen AM, Bardow A, Jensen SB, Nauntofte B. 2002. Saliva and gastrointestinal functions of taste, mastication, swallowing and digestion. Journal of Oral Diseases 8, 117-129.
Peleg M. 1980. A note on the sensitivity of fingers, tongue and jaws as mechanical testing instrument. Journal of Texture Studies 10, 245-251.
Plattig KH. 1984. “The sense of taste”. Journal of Sensory Analysis of Food 2, 1-22.
Plesh O, Bishop B, Mc-call WD. 1986. Effects of gum hardness on chewing patterns. Experimental Neurology 92, 502-512.
Pratiksha Sodhi NS, Dhillon B, Kaur T. 2018. Association between electromyography (EMG) variables during mastication by human subjects and food texture perceptions: a study on different snacks (gajaks, biscuits and chocolates). International Archive of Applied Sciences and Technology 9, 33-42.
Rustagi S, Sodhi NS, Dhillon B. 2018a. A study to investigate reproducibility of chewing behaviour of human subjects within session recordings for different textured Indian foods using electromyography. The Pharma Innovation 7, 5-9.
Rustagi S, Sodhi NS, Dhillon B. 2018b. Analysis of Masseter muscle activities acquired by Surface Electromyography for different textured Indian food products. International Archive of Applied Sciences and Technology 9, 51-57.
Sakamoto H, Harada T, Mataukubo T, Takaesu Y, Tazaki M. 1989. Electromyographic measurement of textural changes of foodstuffs during chewing. Journal of Agricultural and Biological Chemistry 53, 2421-2433.
Shiozawa K, Kohyama K, Yanagisawa K. 1999. Influence of ingested food texture on jaw muscles and tongue activity during mastications in humans. Japanese Journal of Oral Biology 41, 27-34.
Sodhi NS, Singh B, Dhillon B, Kaur T. 2019. Application of electromyography (EMG) in food texture evaluation of different Indian sweets. Asian Journal of Dairy and Food Research 38, 41-48.
Steiner JE, Michman J, Litman A. 1974. Time sequence of the activity of the temporal and masseter muscles in the healthy young human adults during habitual chewing of different test foods. Archives of Oral Biology 19, 29-34.
Stohler CS. 1986. A comparative electromyographic and kinesiographic study of deliberate and habitual mastication in man. Archives of Oral Biology 31, 669-678.
Szczesniak SA. 2002. Texture is a sensory property. Journal of Food Quality and Preference 13, 215-225.
Thextron AJ. 1973. Some aspects of neuralphysiology of dental interest. I. Theories of oral function. Journal of Dentistry 2, 48.
Togashi M, Morita A, Nakazawa F. 2007. Rhythmic and irregular movement of the first molar while eating foods with different textures. Journal of Texture Studies 31, 257- 271.
Tokmakci M, Zortuk M, Asyali M, Sisman Y, Kilinc HI, Ertas ET. 2013. Effect of chewing on dental patients with total denture: an experimental study. Springer Plus 2, 1-8.
Tornberg E, Modig SF, Ruders H, Glantz P, Randow K, Stafford D. 1985. Clinically recorded masticatory patterns as related to sensory evaluation of meat and meat products. Journal Food Science 50, 1059-1066.
Tyle P. 1993. Effects of size, shape and hardness of particles in suspension on oral texture and palatability. Acta Psychology 84, 111-118.
Vander BA, Engelen L, Pereira LJ, Vander GHW, Abbink JH. 2006. Oral physiology and mastication. Journal Physiology and Behavior 89, 22-27.
Vander BA, Olthoff LW, Vander GHW, Vander WK, Bosman F. 1987. A Mathematical description of the communication of food during mastication in man. Archives of Oral Biology 32, 579-586.
Vander BA, Vander GHW, Mowlana F, Heath MR. 1993. A comparison between sieving and optical scanning for the determination of particle size distributions obtained by mastication in man. Archives of Oral Biology 38, 159-162.
Veyrune JL, Mioche L. 2000. Complete denture wearers: Electromyography of mastication and texture perception whilst eating meat. European Journal of Oral Sciences 108, 83-92.
Vinyard CJ, Wall CE, Wiliams SH, Hylander W. 2008. Patterns of variation across primate jaw-muscle electromyography during mastication. Journal of Integrative and Comparative Biology 48, 294-311.
Watt DM. 1972. Monitoring mastication. Journal of Dentistry 4, 271-278.
Yeatman JN, Drake BK. 1973. Physiological aspects of texture perception including mastication. Texture measurements of foods, 10-16.
Mastication: An Oral Physiology of Food Processing in Mouth.
Int. J. Biosci. 18(3), 193-204, March 2021.
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)