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Impact of anthropogenic activities on water quality and Freshwater Shrimps diversity and distribution in five rivers in Douala, Cameroon

Tchakonté Siméon, Ajeagah Gideon, Diomandé Dramane, Camara Adama Idrissa, Konan Koffi Mexmin, Ngassam Pierre

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J. Bio. Env. Sci.4(2), 183-194, February 2014

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Abstract

Shrimps are an important source of proteins for human beings and a considerable food webs component of invertebrate assemblages in tropical freshwater rivers. In order to determine shrimps diversity and to assess the impact of anthropogenic activities on their distribution, 12 sites were monitored; two of these located in a periurban forest area and the rest situated in urbanized and industrialized zones. Samplings were carried out monthly from September 2012 to September 2013, and shrimps were collected using a long-handled net (30×30 cm side, 400-µm mesh). Meanwhile, measurements of the environmental variables were taken. This study achieved for the first time in the Douala watershed permitted to put in evidence 7 freshwater shrimp species, Caridina africana (Kingsley, 1882), Caridina nilotica (Roux, 1833), Macrobrachium thysi (Powell, 1980), Macrobrachium scabriculum (Heller, 1862), Macrobrachium equidens (Dana, 1852), Desmocaris trispinosa (Aurivillius, 1898) and Potamalpheops sp (Powell, 1979) belonging to 4 families (Atyidae, Palaemonidae, Desmocarididae and Alpheidae). Among these species M. thysi a large-egged species which was said to be endemic to Ivory Coast, appear to be a first record for Central Africa. C. africana and D. trispinosa were the most abundant with respectively 50.41% and 36.07% of total abundance. All these species were present only at the two suburban sites, no specie being found in urban zone. Physicochemical analysis revealed the very poor health status of urban streams with highly polluted water, while periurban streams have very good water quality. Redundancy Analysis and Monte Carlo tests showed a spatial distribution of the shrimp community which is significantly influenced by conductivity, total dissolved solids, dissolved oxygen, turbidity, alkalinity, ammonium, nitrate, phosphate, Biochemical Oxygen Demand, canopy coverage and water depth. It is thus clear that, bad management of urban and industrial wastes contributes to damage the water quality and induce the extinction of freshwater shrimp species.

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