Impact of chromium toxicity on water, plankton and bed sediments of River Ravi, Pakistan

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/11/2017
Views (265) Download (13)

Impact of chromium toxicity on water, plankton and bed sediments of River Ravi, Pakistan

Abdul Rauf, Ghazala Jabeen, Muhammad Javed
Int. J. Biosci.11( 5), 294-300, November 2017.
Certificate: IJB 2017 [Generate Certificate]


The water, plankton and bed sediments collected from three polluted sites (Shahdara Bridge, Baloki Headworks and Sidhnai Barrage) in river Ravi were analyzed quantitatively to assess the impact of chromium toxicity on fish and the aquatic ecosystem. Metallic toxicity of water at all the three sites was generally low but the contamination levels in sediment and plankton were significantly higher indicating the bio-magnification of chromium in higher trophic levels. The uptake and accumulation of chromium by the sediments and plankton was dependent positively and significantly upon metallic toxicity of water. The plankton at Shahdara bridge had significantly higher chromium (45.47±10.62µgg-1) than that of Balokihead works and Sidhnai barrage with the chromium contamination levels of 35.68±7.32 and 34.94±6.39µgg-1, respectively. The pattern of chromium enrichment through water<plankton<bed sediments demonstrated the bio-accumulation and bio-magnification of chromium through water–plankton–bed sediments interactions. The contamination level of water, bed sediments and plankton of river Ravi by chromium exceeded the recommended permissible limits suggesting regular monitoring of heavy metal enrichment in the water bodies and mitigation measures.


Ackereley DF, Gonzalez CF, Park CH, Blake II R, Keyhan M, Matin A. 2004. Chromate reducing properties of soluble flavoproteins Pseudomonas putida and Escherichia Coli. Applied and Environmental Microbiology 70, 873-882.

Allen J, Moore M. 2004. Environmental prognostics, Is the current use of biomarkers appropriate for environmental risk evaluation?. Marine Environmental Research 58, 227-232.

Baird C, Cann M. 2008. Environmental Chemistry, 4th Ed. New York. Freeman WH and Company.

Dekker T, Greve GD, TerLaak TL, Boivin ME, Veuger B, Gortzak G, Dumfries S, Lucker SMG, Kraak MHS, Admiraal W and Van Der Geest HG. 2006. Development and application of a sediment toxicity test using the benthic cladocerans, Chydorus sphaericus. Environmental Pollution 140, 231-238.

Dojlido JR, Best GA. 1993. Chemistry of water and water pollution. Ellis Horwood Limited; New York.

Donohue I, Style D, Coxon C, Irvine K. 2006. Importance of spatial and temporal patterns for assessment of risk of diffuse nutrient emissions to surface waters. Journal of Hydrology 304, 183-192.

Eimers RD, Evans RD, Welbourn PM. 2001. Cadmium accumulation in the fresh water isopod Asellus racovitzai, the relative importance of solute and particulate sources at trace concentrations. Environmental Pollution 111, 247-253.

Gernhofer M, Pawert M, Schramm M, Muller E, Triebskorn R. 2001. Ultra structural biomarkers as tools to characterize the health status of fish in contaminated streams. Journal of Aquatic Ecosystems and Stress Recovery 8, 241-260.

Hollert H, Keiter S, Konig N, Rudolf M, Ulrich M, Braunbeck T. 2003. A new sediment contact assay to assess particle-bound pollutants using zebrafish (Daniorerio) embryos. Journal of Soils and Sediments 3, 197-207.

Janssen CR, Schamphelaere KD, Heijerick D, Muyssen B, Lock K, Bossuyt B, Vangheluwe M, Van Sprang P. 2000. Uncertainities in the environmental risk assessment of metals. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment Journal 6, 1003-1018.

Javed M. 1988. Growth performance and meat quality of major carps as influenced by pond fertilization and feed supplementation. Ph.D. Thesis, Dept. of Zoology & Fisheries, Agric. Univ., Faisalabad pp. 281.

Nogami EM, Kimura CC, Rodrigues C, Malagutti AR, Lenzi E, Nozaki J. 2000. Effects of dietary cadmium and its bioconcentration in Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 45, 291-295.

Singh M, Ansari AA, Muller G, Singh IB. 1997. Heavy metals in freshly deposited sediments of Gomti river (a tributary of the Ganga river), Effects of human activities. Environmental Geology 29, 246-252.

Singh M, Muller G, Singh IB. 2002. Heavy metals in freshly deposited stream sediments of rivers associated with urbanization of the Ganga plain, India. Water Air and Soil Pollution 141, 35-54.