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Impact of climate on seed morphology and plant growth of Caesalpinia bonduc L. in West Africa

Elie A. Padonou, Oscar D. Ahossou, Farris O.Y. Okou, Achille E. Assogbadjo, Romain Glèlè Kakaï, Anne Mette Lykke, Brice Sinsin

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Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res.6(3), 86-96, March 2015

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Abstract

Caesalpinia bonduc L. is an important medicinal plant threatened by overexploitation. In the present study, the impact of climate on seed morphology, germination capacity, seedling and plant growth of C. bonduc were evaluated. A total of 2000 seeds were collected in Sudanian and Guinean climate zones of Africa and their length, width, thickness, weight and color were recorded. A hierarchical classification and canonical discriminant analysis were applied to the above traits of seeds from the different climatic zones. An analysis of variance with repeated measures was applied to seeds morphotypes identified by the hierarchical classification to test for the effect of these morphotypes on seed germination, seedling and plant growth. Hierarchical classification helped to identify four seed morphotypes. Canonical discriminant analysis performed on these morphotypes revealed highly significant differences. Morphotypes 1 and 3 comprised green seeds mainly from Sudanian zone while morphotypes 2 and 4 gathered grey seeds mainly from Guinean zone. Morphotype 3 had the longest seeds while the shortest seeds were from morphotype 1. The heaviest seeds were found in morphotype 4 whereas the lightest ones were from morphotype 1. Seeds of morphotype 4 were the thickest and widest, while the slimmest and most narrow ones were grouped in morphotype 1. Moprhotype 3, consisting of large green seeds mainly from Sudanian zone, was superior in terms of seedling and plant growth among all morphotypes and should be the best choice for planting purposes of the species.

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Impact of climate on seed morphology and plant growth of Caesalpinia bonduc L. in West Africa

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