Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Review Paper | September 1, 2012

| Download 3

Impact of heavy metals and Hsp Response

Baby Joseph, Jency George, M.V. Jeevitha

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.2( 9), 51-64, September 2012


IJB 2012 [Generate Certificate]


Heavy metals are natural constituents of the earth’s crust, but indiscriminate human activities have drastically altered their geochemical cycles and biochemical balance. Heavy metals such as Iron, copper, Zinc, Nickel, Molybdenum are essential for normal biological functioning. Heavy metals such as Mercury, Lead, and Cadmium are biologically non-essential, but are important metals for industrial applications. Prolonged exposure to heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead, nickel, and zinc can cause deleterious health effects in plants, fishes and humans. Higher concentrations of both essential and non-essential metals disturb normal biological functions and which evoke cellular stress responses. Prolonged exposure of heavy metals induces heat shock proteins in plants, animals and fishes. Heat shock proteins are expressed in response to a wide range of biotic and abiotic stressors. Heat shock proteins are a family of highly conserved cellular proteins present in all organisms including fish, plant and humans. This review focus the toxic effects of heavy metals and the significance of heat shock proteins in response to stress in plant, fish and human


Copyright © 2012
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Impact of heavy metals and Hsp Response

Airaksinen S, Rabergh CMI, Sistonen L, Nikinmaa M. 1998. Effects of heat shock and hypoxia on protein synthesis in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) cells. Journal of Experimental Biology 200,2543- 2551.

Ambrose T, Vincent S, Cyril L.1994. Susceptibility of the freshwater fish, Gambusia affinis (Baird and Giard), Sarotherodon mossambicus (Peters) and Cirrhinus mrigala (Ham.) to zinc toxicity. J. Environ. Toxicol 4,29-31.

Arai A, Naruse K, Mitani H, Shima A. 1995.Cloning and characterization of cDNAs for 70- kDa heat shock proteins (Hsp70) from two fish species of the genus Oryzias. Japanese Journal of Genetics 70,423–433.

ATSDR. 2005. Draft toxicological profile for lead, US Department of health and human services. Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 102 – 225.

Barque JP, Abahamid A, Chacun H, Bonaly J. 1996. Different heat-shock proteins are constitutively overexpressed in cadmium and pentachlorophenol adapted Euglena gracilis cells. Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications 223,7-11.

Basu N, Kennedy CJ, Iwama GK. 2003. The effects of stress on the association between Hsp70 and the glucocorticoid receptor in rainbow trout. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology 134,655-663.

Bryan MD, Atchison GJ, Sandheinrich MB. 1995. Effects of cadmium on the foraging behavior and growth of juvenile bluegill, Lepomis macrochirus. Can. J.Fish. Aquat. Sci 52, 1630-1638.

Coen N, Mothersill C, Kadhim M, Wright EG. 2001. Heavy metals of relevance to human health induce genomic instability. Pathol 195,293 -299.

Company R, Serafim A, Bebianno MJ, Cosson R, Shillito B, Fiala-medioni A. 2004. Effect of cadmium, copper and mercury on antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation in the gills of the hydrothermal vent mussel Bathymodiolus azoricus. Mar. environ. Res 58,377-381.

Connell D, Lam P, Richardson B, Wu R. 1999. Introduction to Ecotoxicology. Oxford,UK: Blackwell Science Ltd,71.

Currie S, Tufts BL, Moyes CD. 1999. Influence of bioenergetics stress on heat shock protein gene expression in nucleated red blood cells of fish. American Journal of Physiology – Regulatory, Integrative, and Comparative Physiology 276, 990-996.

Das KK, Buchner V. 2007. Effect of nickel exposure on peripheral tissues: Role of oxidative stress in toxicity and possible protection by ascorbic acid. Rev Environ Health 22,133-49.

DeMayo A, Taylor MC, Taylor KW,  Hudson PV. 1982. Toxic effects of Heat-shock proteins, molecular chaperones, and the stress response: evolutionary and ecological physiology. Annu. Rev. Physiol 61, 243–282.

Demirevska-Kepova KL, Simova-Stoilova Z, Stoyanova R. 2004. Biochemical changes in barley plants after excessive supply of copper and manganese. Environ Exp Bot 52,253-66.

Drevnick PE, Sandheinrich MB, Oris JT. 2006b. Increased ovarian follicular apoptosis in fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) exposed to dietary methylmercury. Aquat. Toxicol 79, 49–54.

Drevnick PE, Sandheinrich MB. 2003. Effects of dietary methylmercury on reproductive endocrinology of fathead minnows. Environ. Sci. Technol 37, 4390–4396.

Ebbs SD, Kochian LV. 1997. Toxicity of zinc and copper to Brassica species: implications for phytoremediation. Journal of Environmental Quality 26, 776–781.

Feder ME. 2006. Integrative biology of stress: molecular actors, the ecological theater, and the evolutionary play. International Symposium on Environmental Factors. Cellular Stress and Evolution, Varanasi, India, 21.

Fernandes C, Fontainhas- Fernendes A, Cabral D, Salgado MA. 2008. Heavy metals in water, Sediment and tissues of Liza saliens from Esmoriz-Paramos lagoon, Portugal. Environ. Monit. Assess 136,267-275.

Fink AL. 1999. Chaperone-mediated protein folding. Physiol. Rev 79, 425–449.

Fontes RLS, Cox FR. 1998. Zinc toxicity in soybean grown at high iron concentration in nutrient solution. Journal of Plant Nutritio 21, 1723–1730.

Franca S, Vinagre C, Cacador I, Cabral HN. 2005. Heavy metal concentrations in sediment, benthic invertebrates and fish in three salt marsh areas subjected to different pollution loads in the Tagus Estuary (Portugal). Marine Pollut. Bull 50,993-1018.

Ganther HE. 1999. Selenium metabolism, selenoproteins and mechanisms of cancer prevention: complexities with thioredoxin reductase. Carcinogen 20(9),1657-1666.

Gedamu L, Culham B, Heikkila JJ. 1983. Analysis of the temperature-dependent temporal pattern of heat-shock protein synthesis in fish cells. Biosci. Rep 3, 647-658.

George K, Iwama, Philip T, Thomas, Robert B, Forsyt H, Mathilakath M, Vijayan. 1998. Heat shock protein expression in fish. Reviews in Fish Biology and Fisheries 8, 35-56.

Gonzalez P, Dominique Y, Massabuau JC, Boudou A, Bourdineaud JP.2005. Comparative effects of dietary methylmercury on gene expression in liver, skeletal muscle, and brain of the zebrafish (Danio rerio). Environ. Sci. Technol 39, 3972–3980.

Gupta, AD, Patil AM, Ambekar JG, Das SN, Dhundasi SA, Das KK. 2006. L-ascorbic acid protects the antioxidant defense system in nickel-exposed albino rat lung tissues. J Basic Clin Physiol Pharmacol 17, 87-100.

Hall JL. 2002. Cellular mechanisms for heavy metal detoxification and tolerance. Journal of Experimental Botany 53, 1-11.

Hallare AV, Kohler HR, Triebskorn R. 2004. Developmental toxicity and stress protein responses in zebrafish embryos after exposure to diclofenac and its solvent, DMSO. Chemosphere 56, 659-666.

Hamilton III EW, Heckathorn SA. 2001. Mitochondrial adaptations to NaCl stress: Complex I is protected by anti-oxidants and small heat shock proteins, whereas Complex II is protected by proline and betaine. Plant Physiology 126, 1266–1274.

Han FX, Su Y, Monts DL, Waggoner AC, Plodinec JM. 2006. Binding, distribution, and plant uptake of mercury in a soil from Oak Ridge, Tennessee, USA. Science of the Total Environment 368, 753–768.

Heikkila JJ, Schultz GA, Iatrou K, Gedamu L. 1982. Expression of a set of fish genes following heat or metal ion exposure. J. Biol. Chem 257, 12000-12005.

Hightower LE, Norris CE, Dilorio PJ, Fielding E. 1999. Heat shock responses of closely related species of tropical and desert fish. American Zoologist 39, 877-888.

Holden PR. 2000. Toxic mechanisms mediated by gene expression. In: Roberts, R.A. (Ed.), Apoptosis in Toxicology. Taylor and Francis, London, 187–211.

Ibok UJ, Udosen ED, Udoidiong OM. 1989. Heavy metals in fishes from some streams in Ikot Ekpene area of Nigeria. Nig. J. Tech. Res 1, 61-68.

Israr M, Sahi S. 2006. Antioxidative responses to mercury in the cell cultures of Sesbania drummondii. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry 44, 590–595.

Keller JM, Escara-Wilke F, Keller ET. 2008. Heat stress-induced heat shock protein 70 expression is dependent on ERK activation in zebrafish (Danio rerio) cells. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology (Part A) 150, 307-314.

Kopsell DA, Randle WM. 1997b. Short-day onion cultivars differ in bulb Se and S accumulation which can affect bulb pungency. Euphytica 96,385–390.

Kothary RK, Burgess EA, Candido EPM. 1984. The heat shock phenomenon in cultured cells of rainbow trout: Hsp70 mRNA synthesis and turnover. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 783,137-143.

Kregel KC. 2002. Invited review: Heat shock proteins: Modifying factors in physiological stress responses and acquired thermotolerance. J Appl Physiol 92(5), 2177-2186.

Lele Z, Engel S, Krone PH. 1997. Hsp47 and Hsp70 gene expression is differentially regulated in a stressand tissue specific manner in zebrafish embryos.Developmental Genetics 21,123-133.

Levitt J. 1980. Responses of Plants to Environmental Stresses: Water, Radiation, Salt and Other Stresses. vol. II. Academic Press Inc, New York, London.

Lide D. 1992. Selected values of chemical thermodynamic properties.CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 73rd. Boca Raton, FL: CRC Press, 270(1-8).

Lim EH, Brenner S. 1999. Short range linkage relationships, genomic organization and sequence comparisons of a cluster of five Hsp70 genes in Fugu rubripes. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences 55,668-678.

Lindquist S, Craig EA. 1988. The heat shock proteins. Annual Review of Genetics 22, 631-677.

Lindquist S. 1986. The Heat Shock Response. Annual Review of Genetics 55, 1151-1191.

Maity S, Roy S, Chaudhury S, Bhattacharya S. 2008. Antioxidant responses of the earthworm Lampito mauritii exposed to Pb and Zn contaminated soil. Environ. Pollut 151,1-7.

Meharg AA. 1994. Integrated tolerance mechanisms – constitutive and adaptive plant – responses to elevated metal concentrations in the environment. Plant Cell Environ 17, 989–993.

Mengel K, Kirkby EA. 1987. Principles of Plant Nutrition. International Potash Institute. Bern, pp: 687.

Misra S, Zafarullah M, Price-Haughey J, Gedamu L. 1989. Analysis of stress-induced gene expression in fish cell lines exposed to heavy metals and heat shock. Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1007, 325-333.

Mohanpuria P, Rana NK, Yadav SK. 2007. Cadmium induced oxidative stress influence on glutathione metabolic genes of Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze. Environmental Toxicology 22, 368–374.

Molina A, Biemar F, Muller F, Lyengar A, Prunet P, Maclean N, Martial JA, Muller M. 2000. Cloning and expression analysis of an inducible Hsp70 gene from tilapia fish. Federation of European Biochemical Societies Letters 474,5-10.

Morimoto RI, Tissieres A, Georgopoulos C. 1994. The Biology of Heat Shock Proteins and Molecular Chaperones. Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press, Cold Spring Harbor, New York, 155 .

Morimoto RI. 1993. Cells in stress: The transcriptional activation of heat shock genes. Science 259, 1409–1410.

Mosser DD, Bols NC. 1988. Relationship between heat-shock protein synthesis and thermotolerance in rainbow trout ®broblasts. J. Comp. Physiol 158B, 457-467.

Multhoff G. 2007. Heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70): Membrane location, export and immunological relevance. Methods 43, 229-237.

Nakamoto H, Suzuki N, Roy SK. 2000. Constitutive expression of a small heat-shock protein confers cellular thermotolerance and thermal protection to the photosynthetic apparatus in cyanobacteria. FEBS Letters 483,169-174.

Olaifa FE, Olaifa AK, Adelaja AA, Owolabi AG.2004. Heavy metal contamination of Clarias garpinus from a lake and fish farm in Ibadan. Nigeria. Afr. J. Biomed. Res 7,145-148.

Pandey N, Sharma CP. 2002. Effect of heavy metals Co2+, Ni2+ and Cd2+ on growth and metabolism of cabbage. Plant Sci 163, 753 -758.

Park H, Ahn IY, Lee HE. 2007. Expression of Hsp70 in the thermally stressed Antarctic clam Laternula elliptica. Cell Stres&Chaperons 12, 275-282.

Parsell DA, Lindquist S. 1993. The function of heat-shock proteins in stress tolerance: degradation and reactivation of damaged proteins. Annu. Rev. Genet 27, 437–496.

Parsell DA, Lindquist S. 1994. Heat shock proteins and stress tolerance. In R. Morimoto, A. Tissieres, and C. Georgopoulos ed. The biology of heat shock proteins and molecular chaperones. New York, USA: Cold Spring Harbor Press, 457-494.

Patlolla, Anita K, Tchounwou, Paul B. 2005. Serum Acetyl Cholinesterase as a Biomarker of Arsenic Induced Neurotoxicity in Sprague-Dawley Rats. Int.J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2(1), 80-83.

Patsikka E, Kairavuo M, Sersen F, Aro EM, Tyystjarvi E. 2002. Excess copper predisposes photosystem II to photoinhibition in vivo by outcompeting iron and causing decrease in leaf chlorophyll. Plant Physiology 129,1359-1367.

Rahman H, Sabreen S, Alam S, Kawai S. 2005. Effects of nickel on growth and composition of metal micronutrients in barley plants grown in nutrient solution. J. Plant Nutr 28, 393 – 404.

Rask M, Vuorinen PJ, Vuorinen M.1990.Delayed spawning of perch, Perca fluviatilus (Linn.) in acidified lakes. J. Fish. Biol 36, 317-325.

Rayman MP. 2000. The importance of selenium to human health. The Lancet 356,233- 241.

Reddy SG, Kumar G, Jyonthsnakumari S, Sudhakar C. 2005. Lead induced changes in antioxidant metabolism of horsegram (Macrotyloma uniflorum (Lam.) Verdc.) and bengalgram (Cicerarietinum L.). Chemosphere 60,97–104.

Richard CF, Bourg CMA. 1991. Aqueous geochemistry of chromium: A review. Water Res 25(7), 807-816.

Sabine Martin, Wendy Griswold PG. 2009. Human Health Effects of Heavy Metals. Center for Hazardous Substance Research Kansas State University. 15,785-532.

Sala LF, Rizzoto A, Frascaroli MI, Palopoli CM, Signorella SR.1995. Contamination ambiental por el metal de transition cromo. Estamos frente a un serio problema ecokjgico?. Quim Nova 18,468-474.

Scoccianti V, Crinelli R, Tirillini B, Mancinelli V, Speranza A. 2006. Uptake and toxicity of Cr (Cr3+) in celery seedlings. Chemosphere 64,1695–1703.

Scott A, Heckathorn, Kathleen mueller J, Stephanie laguidice, Bin zhu,Tara barrett, Brian blair, Yan dong. 2004. Chloroplast small heat-shock proteins protect photosynthesis during heavy metal stress. American Journal of Botany 91, 1312-1318.

Sharma A, Sharma MS.1994. Toxic effect of zinc smelter effluent to some developmental stages of fresh water fish, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus). J. Environ. Biol 15(3), 221-229.

Sharma DC, Sharma CP, Tripathi RD .2003. Phytotoxic lesions of chromium in maize. Chemosphere 51, 63–68.

Sharma P, Dubey RS. 2004. Ascorbate peroxidase from rice seedlings: properties of enzyme isoforms, effects of stresses and protective roles of osmolytes. Plant Sci 167, 541-550.

Sharples JM, Meharg AA, Chambers SM, Cairney JWG. 2000a. Mechanism of arsenate resistance in the ericoid mycorrhizal fungus Hymenoscyphus ericae. Plant Physiol 124, 1327–1334.

Stadtman ER, Oliver CN.1991. Metal-catalyzed oxidation of proteins. J Biol Chem 266,2005-8.

Surai PF. 2002. Selenium. In: Natural Antioxidants in Avian Nutrition and Reproduction. Nottingham University Press, UK,233-304.

Surec B.2003. Accumulation of heavy metals by intestinal helmints in fish: an overview and perspective. Parasitology 126, 53-60.

Thomas DJ, Avenson TJ, Thomas JB, Herbert SK. 1998. A cyanobacterium lacking iron superoxide dismutase is sensitized to oxidative stress induced with methyl viologen but not sensitized to oxidative stress induced with norflurazon. Plant Physiology 116, 1593– 1602.

Tuzen M. 2003. Determination of heavy metals in fish Samples of the MidDame Lakee Black Sea (Turkey) by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Food Chem 80,119-123.

Vajpayee P, Tripathi RD, Rai UN, Ali MB, Singh SN. 2000. Chromium (VI) reduces chlorophyll biosynthesis, nitrate reductase activity and protein content in Nymphaea alba L. Chemosphere 41,1075-1082.

Van Assche F, Clijsters H.1990. Effects of metals on enzyme activity in plants. Plant, Cell and Environment 13,195206.

Vierling E. 1991. The role of heat shock proteins in plants. Annu. Rev. Plant Phys 42, 579–620.

Vinit-dunand F, Epron D, Alaoui-sosse B, Badot PM. 2002. Effects of copper on growth and on photosynthesis of mature and expanding leaves in cucumber plants. Plant Science 163,53–58.

Wagner M, Hermanns I, Bittinger F, Kirkpatrick CJ. 1999. Induction of stress proteins in human endothelial cells by heavy metal ions and heat shock. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 277, L1026-L1033.

Wang W, Vinocur B, Altman A. 2003. Plant responses to drought, salinity and extreme temperatures: towards genetic engineering for stress tolerance. Planta 218, 1–14.

Williams JH, Farag AM, Stansbury MA, Young PA, Bergman HL, Petersen NS. 1996. Accumulation of hsp70 in juvenile and adult rainbow trout gill exposed to metal-contaminatedwater and or diet. Env. Toxicol. Chem 15, 1324-1328.

Witeska M.1998. Changes in selected blood indices of common carp after acute exposure to cadmium. Acta. Vet. Brno 67, 289-293.

Wojcik M, Tukiendorf A. 2004. Phytochelatin synthesis and cadmium localization in wild type of Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant Growth Regulation 44, 71– 80.

Woo PTK, Sin YM, Wong MK.1994. The effects of short-term acute cadmium exposure on blue tilapia, Oreochromis aureus. Environ. Biol. Fish 37,67- 74.

Wu L. 1994. Selenium accumulation and colonization of plants in soils with elevated selenium and salinity. In: W.T. Frankenberger Jr., S. Benson, eds. Selenium in the Environment. New York: Marcel Dekker 279–326.

Zhang Q, Zhang L, Xiao X, Su Z, Zou P, Hu H. 2010.Heavy metals chromium and neodymium reduced phosphorylation level of heat shock protein 27 in human keratinocytes. Toxico In Vitro 24,1098-1104.

Zhou ZS, Huang SQ, Guo K, Mehta SK, Zhang PC, Yang ZM. 2007. Metabolic adaptations to mercury-induced oxidative stress in roots of Medicago sativa. L. Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry 101, 1–9.