J. Bio. Env. Sci.10(4), 163-173, April 2017
Detrivore augmentation is a part of Integrated Pest Management (IPM) tactic based on local potential owned by farmers. Its main objective is to increase the abundance of decomposers organisms. Decomposers abundance is an indicator of the nutrient cycling availability. It also indicates the availability of alternative energy source that ensures the natural enemy populations. Augmentation efforts made through the addition of biomass include straw residue, Azolla sp., and organic fertilizers. Mutually with other IPM culture techniques applied, it can improve the abundance of soil arthropods by 9% during the dry season. Also there was an increasing by 15% at the wet season. Some taxa such as Araneae, Araneidae (orb-weaver spider) and Formicidae, which acts as a predator, have a significant increase in its population. A higher population was also observed in parasitic wasps, as well as in Collembola’s and Diptera’s: Chironomidae population, which acts as decomposers. In terms of the diversity index, there were no significant differences between sites (p = 0433; n = 48). However, the number of species, that is contributes to the community, is 1.4% higher in IPM site.
Alam MZ, Crump AR, Haque M, Islam S. 2016. Effects of integrated pest management on pest damage and yield components in a rice agro-ecosystem in the barisal region of Bangladesh. Frontiers in Environmental Science 4, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.3389/fenvs.2016.00022.
Bear ADA, Johnson SN, Jones TH. 2013. Putting the “ upstairs – downstairs ” into ecosystem service : what can aboveground – belowground ecology tell us ?.Biological Control 75, 97-107. https://doi.org/ 10.1016/j.biocontrol.2013.10.004.
Cary PR, Weerts PGJ. 1992. Growth and nutrient composition of Azolla pinnata R . Brown and Azollafiliculoides Lamarck as affected by water temperature , nitrogen and phosphorus supply , light intensity and pH. Aquatic Botany 43, 163-180.
Drieu R, Rusch A. 2017. Conserving species-rich predator assemblages strengthens natural pest control in a climate warming context. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 19, 52-59. https://doi. org/10.1111/afe.12180.
Dudas P, Menyhart L, Gedeon C, Ambrus G, Toth F. 2016. The effect of hay mulching on soil temperature and the abundance and diversity of soil-dwelling arthropods in potato fields. European Journal of Entomology 113, 456-461. https://doi.org/ 10.14411/eje.2016.059.
Durance I, Bruford MW, Chalmers R, Chappell NA, Christie M, Cosby BJ, Woodward G. 2016. The Challenges of Linking Ecosystem Services to Biodiversity : Lessons from a Large-Scale Freshwater Study. Advances in Ecological Research 54, 87-134. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.aecr.2015.10.003.
Ganser D, Denmead LH, Clough Y, Buchori D, Tscharntke T. 2017. Local and landscape drivers of arthropod diversity and decomposition processes in oil palm leaf axils. Agricultural and Forest Entomology 19, 60-69. https://doi.org/10.1111/afe.12181.
Gkisakis V, Volakakis N, Kollaros D, Bàrberi P, Kabourakis EM. 2016. Soil arthropod community in the olive agroecosystem : Determined by environment and farming practices in different management systems and agroecological zones. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 218, 178-189. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2015.11.026.
Hasriyanty, Rizali A, Buchori D. 2015. Keanekaragaman semut dan pola keberadaannya pada daerah urban di Palu, Sulawesi Tengah. Jurnal Entomologi Indonesia 12, 39-47. https://doi.org/ 10.5994/jei.
Horgan FG, Fame A, Bernal CC, James M, Stuart AM, Almazan MLP. 2016. Applying ecological engineering for sustainable and resilient rice production systems. Procedia Food Science 6, 7-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.profoo.2016.02.002.
Hu Y, Cheng J, Zhu Z, Luen K, Fu Q, He J. 2014. A comparative study on population development patterns of Sogatella furcifera between tropical and subtropical areas. Journal of Asia-Pacific Entomology 17(4), 845-851. https://doi.org/10.1016/ j.aspen.2014.08.005.
Karuppuchamy P, Venugopal S. 2016. Integrated Pest Management. In Omkar. Ecofriendly Pest Management for Food Security. Elsevier Inc 651-684. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-803265-7.00021-X.
Kearns P, Stevenson RD. 2012. The Effect of Decreasing Temperature on Arthropod Diversity and Abundance in Horse Dung Decomposition Communities of Southeastern Massachusetts. Psyche 2012, 12 pp. https://doi.org/10.1155/2012/618701.
Logan JD, Wolesensky W, Joern A. 2006. Temperature-dependent phenology and predation in arthropod systems. Ecological Modeling 196, 471-482. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2006.02.034.
Magurran AE. 2003. Measuring Biological Diversity (1st Ed.). Victoria australia: Blackwell Publishing Company 577pp.
Marchiori A, Baumart J, Santos S. 2012. Immatures of Chironomidae (Insecta – Diptera ) under the action of pesticides in irrigated rice fi eld. Ecohydrology and Hydrobiology 12(1), 43-52.
Maribie C, Muturi J, Lagerl J. 2017. Trophic interactions among soil arthropods in contrasting land-use systems in Kenya , studied with stable isotopes. European Journal of Soil Biology 79, 31-39. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejsobi.2017.01.002.
Muniappan R, Heinrichs EA. 2014. Biodiversity and Integrated Pest Management: Working together for a Sustainable Future. Crop Protection 61, 102-103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2013.12.043.
Nugraha MN, Buchori D, Nurmansyah A, Rizali A. 2014. Interaksi tropik antara hama dan parasitoid pada pertanaman sayuran : faktor pembentuk dan implikasinya terhadap keefektifan parasitoid. Jurnal Entomologi Indonesia, 11(2), 103-112. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2013.12.043.
Oka IN. 1991. Success and challenges of the Indonesia National Integrated Pest Management Program in the rice-based cropping system. Crop Protection 10, 163-165. https://doi.org/10.1016/0261-2194(91)90037-R.
Palm C, Blanco-Canqui H, Declerck F, Gatere L, Grace P. 2013. Conservation agriculture and ecosystem services: An overview. “Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 2013, 19 pp. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.agee.2013.10.010.
Setiani EA, Akhmad Rizali, Moerfiah, Bandung S, Buchori D. 2010. Ant diversity in rice field in urban landscape : investigation on the effect of habitat condition and age of rice plant. Jurnal Entomologi Indonesia 7(2), 88-99.
Shukla RK, Singh H, Rastogi N. 2016. How effective are disturbance – tolerant, agroecosystem – nesting ant species in improving soil fertility and crop yield ?. Applied Soil Ecology 108, 156-164. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2016.08.013.
Stuart AM, Ruth A, Pame P, Vithoonjit D. 2017. The application of best management practices increases the profitability and sustainability of rice farming in the central plains of Thailand. Field Crops Research 2017, 10 pp.