In-situ mineral nitrogen following soil incorporation Crotalaria grahamiana and Mucuna pruriens biomass and financial benefits of legume short-fallow in Eastern Uganda

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/07/2014
Views (235) Download (5)
current_issue_feature_image
publication_file

In-situ mineral nitrogen following soil incorporation Crotalaria grahamiana and Mucuna pruriens biomass and financial benefits of legume short-fallow in Eastern Uganda

Tumuhairwe John Baptist, Katusabe Alice Amoding, Delve Robert, Jama Bashir, Rwakaikara-Silver Mary Christine
Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res.5( 1), 110-123, July 2014.
Certificate: IJAAR 2014 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

Improved fallows have been promoted in Uganda as alternative soil fertility management options to enhance sustainable land management. The major contribution of improved is through biological nitrogen fixation and high quality soil organic matter. An on-farm study was conducted in eastern Uganda to determine the mineral nitrogen contribution of improved fallow and the consequent increased in maize yield and economic benefits to the farmers. Improved fallow of Crotalaria grahamiana (Sunhemm) and Mucuna pruriens (Velvet bean) were studies because they have gained dominance amongst smallholder farmers in Uganda. The short-duration C. grahamiana and M. pruriens fallows were compared to farmers’ practices of natural vegetation fallow, compost manure and continuous cropping. It was noted that C. grahamiana and M. pruriens fallow significantly (p<0.05) increased soil mineral N at Site 1 at end of fallowing, then a week and the fifth week after incorporating the biomass (p< 0.05). Maize yield significantly increased (p<0.05) following improved fallows subsequently positively responded to supplement doses of inorganic fertilizer at 60 kg N ha-1. However, high varied and opportunity costs of improved fallows reduced their profitability (p <0.001). Consequently, continuous cropping with application of inorganic fertilizer at a rate 60 Kg N ha-1 was cost effective with the marginal rate of return of 156% and 65% at Sites 1 and 2, respectively. Therefore, improved fallowing is only a viable soil fertility management option in low income subsistence farming systems.

VIEWS 5

Anderson JM. Ingram JS. 1993. Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility. A Handbook of Methods. Second edition. CAB International, Wallingford, Oxon, UK, 221 p.

Barrios E, Kwesiga F, Buresh RJ, Sprent JI. 1997. Light fraction soil organic matter and available nitrogen fallowing trees and maize. Soil Science Society of America Journal 61, 826 – 821.

Chikoye D, Ekelembe F, Lum AF, Schulz S. 2008. Legume-maize rotation and nitrogen effects on weed performance in humid and subhumid tropics of West Africa. Crop Protection 27, 638 – 647.

CIMMYT. 1988. From agronomic data to farmer recommendations: An economic training manual. Complete revised edition. CIMMYT, Mexico, D.F.

Delve R, Gachengo C, Adams E, Palm CA, Candisch G, Giller KE. 2000. The Organic Resource Database. In: Report of the Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Programme TSBF 1997-98, 20 – 22 p.

Desaeger J, Rao MR. 2000. Parasitic nematode populations in natural fallows and improved cover crops and their effects on subsequent crops in Kenya. Field Crops Research 65, 41 – 56.

DeWolf J, Rommelse R, Pisanelli A. 2000. Adoption of improved fallow technology in western Kenya: potential and reception by farmers. International Centre for Research in Agroforestry, Nairobi (mimeo).

Esilaba AO, Byalebeka JB, Delve RJ, Okalebo JR, Ssenyange D, Mbalule M, Ssali H. 2005. On farm testing of integrated nutrient management strategies in eastern Uganda. Agricultural Systems 86, 144 – 165.

Gentile R, Vanlauwe B, Kavoo A, Chivenge P, Six J. 2010. Residue quality and N fertiliser do not influence aggregate stabilization of C and N in two soils with contrasting texture. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 88, 121 – 131.

Hoestra DA. 1985. Choosing the discount rate of analysing Agroforestry systems/technologies from private viewpoint. Forest Ecology Management 10, 177-183.

IDRC. 1999. Cover Crops: Improving soil fertility in Africa. Website http://www.idrc.ca/reports

Ikerra ST, Maghembe JA, Smithson PC, Buresh RJ. 1999. Soil nitrogen dynamics and relationships with maize yields in a Gliricidia-maize intercrop in Malawi. Plant and Soil 00: 1 – 10. Kluwer Academic Publishers. Printed in the Netherlands.

Jama B, Roland J. Buresh RJ, Place F. 1998. Sesbania trees fallow on phosphorus deficiency sites: Maize yield and financial benefits. Agronomy Journal 90, 717 – 726.

Jama B, Swinkels RA, Buresh RJ. 1997. Agronomic and economic evaluation of organic and inorganic sources of phosphorus in western Kenya. Agronomy Journal 89, 597 – 604.

Kiptot E, Hebinck P, Franzel S, Richards P. 2007. Adopters, testers or pseudo-adopters? Dynamics of the use of improved tree fallows by farmers in western Kenya. Agricultural Systems 94, 509 – 519.

Kwesiga F, Franzel S, Place F, Phiri D, Simwanza CP. 1999. Sesbania sesban improved fallows in Eastern Zambia: Their inception, development and farmer enthusiasm. Agroforestry systems 47, 49-66.

Mafongoya PL, Giller KE, Palm CA. 1997. Decomposition and nitrogen release pattern of tree prunings and litter. Agroforestry Systems 38, 77 – 97.

Masikati P, Manschadi A, van Rooyen A, Hargreaves J. 2014. Maize–mucuna rotation: An alternative technology to improve water productivity in smallholder farming systems. Agricultural System 123, 62 – 70.

Nezomba H, Tauro TP, Mtambanengwe F, Mapfumo P. 2010. Indigenous legume fallows (indifallows) as an alternative soil fertility resource in smallholder maize cropping systems. Field Crops Research 115, 149 – 157.

Nyamadzawo G, Chikowo R, Nyamugafata P, Giller KE. 2007. Improved legume tree fallows and tillage effects on structural stability and infiltration rates of a kaolinitic sandy soil from central Zimbabwe. Soil and Tillage Research 96, 182 – 194.

Palm CA, Myers RJK, Nandwa S. 1997. Combined use of organic and inorganic nutrients for soil fertility maintenance and replenishment. In: R.J. Buresh, P.A. Sanchez and F. Calhoun (eds.) Replenishing soil fertility in Africa. SSSA Special Pub. No. 51, Madison, Wisconsin, 193 – 218 p.

Place F, Franzel S, DeWolf J, Rommelse R, Kwesiga F, Niang A, Jama B. 2000. Agroforestry for sol fertility replenishment: Evidence on adoption process in Kenya and Zambia. A paper presented at the workshop on understanding adoption process for natural resource management practices in sub-Saharan Africa, held at ICRAF Hq, 3rd –5th July 2000.

Robinson JBD. 1957. The critical relationship between soil moisture content in the region of wilting point and mineralisation of natural soil nitrogen. Journal of Agricultural Sciences 49, 100 – 105.

Sanchez PA, Izac AM, Valencia IM, Pieri C. 1996. Soil fertility replenishment in Africa. In: Breth, S.A. (ed) Achieving greater impact from research investment in Africa. Mexico city; Sasakawa Africa Association. 200 – 208 p.

Sanchez PA, Shepherds KD, Soule MJ, Place FM, Buresh RJ, Izac AMN, Mokwunye AU, Kwesiga FR, Ndiritu CG, Woomer PL. 1997. Soil fertility replenishment in Africa: An investment in natural resource capital. In: R.J. Buresh, P.A. Sanchez and F. Cachoun (Eds.). Replenishing soil fertility in Africa. SSSA special publication No. 51. Soil Science Society of America, Madison, Wisconsin, USA. 1 – 46.

Sanginga N, Ibewiro B, Houngnandan P, Vanlauwe B, Okugun JA. 1996. Evaluation of symbiotic properties and nitrogen contribution of Mucuna to maize growth in the derived savannas of West Africa. Plant and Soil 179, 119-129.

Schroth G, Kolbe D, Pity B, Zech W. 1995. Searching for criteria for selecting efficient tree species for fallow improvement with special reference to carbon and nitrogen. Fertiliser research 42, 297 – 314.

Smaling EMA, Stoorvogel JJ, Windmeijer PN. 1993. Calculating of soil nutrient balances in Africa at Different Scales. II District Scale. Fertiliser Research 35, 237 – 250.

Tittonell P, Giller KE. 2013. When yield gaps are poverty traps: The paradigm of ecological intensification in African smallholder agriculture. Field Crops Research 143, 76 – 90.

Torquebiau EF, Kwesiga F. 1996. Root development in a Sesbania sesban fallow – maize system in Eastern Zambia. Agroforestry systems 34, 193 – 211.

Van Noordwijk M, Sitompul SM, Hairiah K, Listyarini E, Syekhfani LMS. 1995. Nitrogen supply from rotational or spatially zoned inclusion of Leguminosae for sustainable maize production on an acid soil in Indonesia. In: R.A. Grudon, N.J. Rayment, G.E and Probert, M.E. (eds.) Plant – Soil interactions at low pH. Kluwer, Dordrrecht, Netherlands, 779 – 784.

Wetselaar R. 1968. Soil organic nitrogen mineralisation as affected by low soil water potential. Plant Soil 29, 9 – 17.

World Bank. 2014. Fertiliser consumption (Kg per hectare of arable land). Accessed on 18th April 2014.

Wortmanna CS, Kaizzi CK. 1998. Nutrient balances and expected effects of alternative practices in farming systems of Uganda. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 71, 115 – 129.