Int. J. Biomol. & Biomed.3(1), 12-19, January 2013
The study was designed to evaluate the antibacterial potential of three plants which are Andrographis paniculata, Durio zibethinus and Psidium guajava. Andrographis paniculata leaves (30mg/ml) and roots (30 mg/ml), Durio zibethinus wood bark (10mg/ml), and Psidium guajava leaves (15mg/ml) extract was obtained through the process called maceration, filtration, evaporation and the paste form was freshly reconstitute in dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) and tested against Staphylococcus aureus for Andrographis paniculata, Psidium guajava. Streptococcus agalactiae for Durio zibethinus and Psidium guajava and Escherichia coli for Durio zibethinus using Kirby Baur technique and the plates were incubated at 37 ºC. The zone of inhibition was measured after 24 hours and recorded in millimeters. The combination study was conducted using extract in combination with Penicillin G (6.25 µg/ ml) and erythromycin (15 µg/ ml; Andrographis paniculata) with the propotion of 1:1 in homogenous condition and incubated at 37 ºC for 24 hours. The zone of inhibition was measured and recorded. Mean and standard deviation was calculated. Andrographis paniculata do possesses some antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Leaves (17.33 mm), roots (10.67 mm), erythromycin (24.00 mm), leaves and erythromycin (20.67 mm), roots and erythromycin (21.67 mm), leaves and roots (17.33 mm). Wood bark against Streptococcus agalactiae (14.67 mm), Penicillin G (14.00 mm), and combination (16.67 mm). Durio zibethinus showed antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (11.00mm) and Penicillin G (13.33 mm). Psidium guajava leaves extract were having slightly higher activity than Penicillin G and in combination activity, leaves were having a slightly higher activity than Penicillin G.
Akbar S. 2011. Andrographis paniculata: A Review of Pharmacological Activities and Clinical Effects. Alternative Medicine Review 16(1), 66- 77.
Alagesaboopathi C, Kalaiselvi N. 2012. Antimicrobial activities of the root, stem and leaf extracts of Argemone mexicana L. International Journal of Bioscience 2(5), 61- 68.
Al-Haddad AM. 2005. Urinary tract infection among pregnant women in Al-Mukalla district, Yemen. Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal 11(3), 505-510.
Alireza V, Mihdzar AK, Soon GT, Daryush T, Mohd PA, Sonia N. 2011. Nain-e Havandi Andrographis paniculata present yesterday, absent today: A plenary review on underutilized herb of Iran’s pharmaceutical plants. An International Journal on Molecular and Cellular Biology 39(5), 5409- 5424.
Ashraf MA, Maah MJ, Yusoff I. 2010. Estimation of Antioxidant Phytochemicals in Four Different Varieties of Durian (Durio Zibethinus Murray) Fruit. Middle East Journal of Scientific Research 6(5), 465-471.
Beitune PE, Duarte G, Maffei CML. 2005. Colonization by Streptococcus agalactiae During Pregnancy: Maternal and Perinatal Prognosis. The Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases 9(3), 276-282.
Chowdhury A, Biswas SK, Raihan SZ, Das J, Paul S. 2012. Pharmacological Potentials of Andrographis paniculata: An Overview. International Journal of Pharmacology 8, 6- 9.
Duazo NO, Bautista JR, Teves FG. 2012. Crude methanolic extract activity from rinds and seeds of native durian (Durio zibethinus) against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. African Journal of Microbiology Reseach 6(35), 6483- 6486.
Esimone CO, Iroha IR, Ibezim EC, Okeh CO, Okpana EM. In vitro evaluation of the interaction between tea extracts and Penicillin G against staphylococcus aureus. African Journal of Biotecnology 5(11), 1082- 1086.
Hawkyard CV, Koerner RJ. 2007. The use of Erythromycin as a gastrointestinal prokinetic agent in adult critical care: benefits versus risks. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy 59, 347– 358.
Jarukamjorn K, Nemoto N. 2008. Pharmacological aspect of Andrographis paniculata on health and its major diterpenoid constituent andrographolide. Journal of Health Science 54(4), 370- 381.
Jegathambigai R, Devaraj S, Kumar P, Sivaramakrishnan S. 2010. Study on the hepatoprotective effect of Andrographis paniculata (Burm. F) nees on mice. Journal of Phytology 2(11), 25- 30.
Kataky A, Handique PJ. 2010. Antibiotic Activity and phytochemical estimation of micropropagated Andrographis paniculata (Burm.f) Nees. Asian journal of science and technology 5, 91- 94.
Leontowicz H, Leontowicz M, Haruenkit R, Poovarodom S, Jastrzebski Z, Drzewiecki J, Ayala ALM, Jesion I, Trakhtenberg S, Gorinstein S. 2008. Durian ( Durio zibethinus Murr.) cultivars as nutritional supplementation to rat’s diets. Food Chemistry and Toxicology 46, 581– 589.
Lim TK. 2012. Durio zibethinus. Edible medicinal and non medicinal plant 1, 569- 583.
Mitra SK, Kannan R. 2007. A Note on unintentional adulterations in ayurvedic herbs. Ethnobotanical Leaflets 11, 11- 15.
Norjana I, Noor AAA. 2011. Quality attributes of durian (Durio zibethinus Murr) juice after pectinase enzyme treatment. International Food Research Journal 18(3), 1117-1122.
Panneerselvam C, Ponarulselvam S, Murugan K. 2011. Potential Anti-plasmodial Activity of Synthesized Silver Nanoparticle using Andrographis paniculata Nees (Acanthaceae). Archives of Applied Science Research 3(6), 208- 217.
Patidar S, Gontia AS, Upadhyay A, Nayak PS. 2011. Biochemical Constituents in Kalmegh (Andrographis paniculata Nees.) Under Various Row Spacing’s and Nitrogen Levels. World Applied Sciences Journal 15(8), 1095- 1099.
Rusmiati. 2010. The effects of durian wood skin methanol extract (Durio zibethinus Murr) of Ovarium and Uterus Microanatomy Structure Female Mice (Mus musculus L). Sains dan Terapan Kimia 4(2), 108- 118.
Soares GMS, Figueiredo LC, Faveri M, Cortelli SC, Duarte PM, Feres M. 2012. Mechanisms of action of systemic antibiotics used in periodontal treatment and mechanisms of bacterial resistance to these drugs. Journal of Applied Oral Science 20(3), 295- 309.
Soma R, Kiranmayee R, Bhuvaneswari CH, Archana G, Lakshmi NM. 2009. Phytochemical analysis of Andrographis paniculata extract and its antimicrobial activity. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology 26(1), 85- 91.
Vyas N, Tailan M, Gavatia NP, Gupta BK. 2010. Antioxidant potential of Psidium guajava Linn. International Journal of PharmTech Research 2(1), 417- 419.