Index of drought and wet years using the percentage of normal (PNPI) and Nietzsche Semnan

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/06/2014
Views (252) Download (6)

Index of drought and wet years using the percentage of normal (PNPI) and Nietzsche Semnan

Sahar Ghafari, Rahim Rezaie, Esfandiar Jahantab
J. Bio. Env. Sci.4( 6), 124-130, June 2014.
Certificate: JBES 2014 [Generate Certificate]


Hazards such as drought, which is affecting all aspects of life and the environment, so understanding the sources and across different environments, can be an important step in resource management. In this study the province’s rainfall, annual rainfall data for stations of Semnan, Shahrood, Damqan, Garmsar and Biarjmand, for calculation of wet and dry years were used for statistical analysis. There are different indicators for quantifying drought phenomenon. Indicators used in this study measures the Percent of Normal Precipitation Index (PNPI) and Nietzsche Index . The findings lead to the precipitation and the frequency of wet years and drought conditions in the stations was studied. The overall results indicate that in both Nietzsche and PNPI all stations during the study period with normal conditions have been met. However, the frequency of occurrence in normal years Nietzsche’s approach is far more of PNPI.


Alijani B, Babaie A. 2009. Spacecraft investigating of short time droughts of Iran. Iranian journal of Geographical and Planting 1, 109-121.

Azizi Gh. 2003. Relating between recent droughts and underground water resources in Ghazvin moor/flat. Iranian journal of Geographical Research 46, 131-143.

Bordi I, Frigio S, Parenti P, Speranza A, Sutera A. 2001. The analysis of the standardized precipitation index in the Mediterranean area. ANNLI DI GEOFISSCA 44, 965-978.

Hong W, Hayes M J, Welss A, Hu Q. 2001. An evaluation the standardized precipitation index, the china-z index and the statistical z-score. Climatology 21, 745- 758.

Khalighi Sigaroudi Sh, Sadeghi Sangdehi SA, Awsati Kh, Ghavvidel Rahimi Y. 2009. The Study of Drought and Wet Year Assessment models for Stations in Mazandaran province. Range and Desert Research 16 , 44-54.

Khalili A, Bazrafshan J. 2003. Several indexes efficiency investigating of meteorology drought in the different continental cases of Iran. Nivar 48, 79-93.

Nahvi nia M, Hashemi jazi M, Parsi nejad M, Bandakm A. 2009. Drought monitoring north of the views of various drought indices Weather. The Second National Seminar on Drought Effects/Management (DEM).

Palmer WC. 1965.Meterological drought. Research Paper.45, Washington DC.US, Weather Burea.

Yevjvich V. 1967. An Approach to Definition and Investigation of Continental Hydrologic Droughts, Hydrology Papers 23, Colorado State University fort Collins, USA.

Zare Abyane H, Yazdani W, Ajdari Kh. 2009. Four indexes comparing study of meteorology drought based on turnover of Demy wheat in Hamadan province, Iranian journal of Investigations of Natural Geography 69, 19-29.