J. Bio. Env. Sci.13( 4), 73-87, October 2018
In mountainous areas, land tenure systems are mostly introduced by local inhabitants in accordance with the prevailing physical and anthropogenic conditions of the area. The locally introduced land tenure system has played a vital role in the integration of the society and natural resource management in the mountainous areas of Pakistan. However, due to the complex nature of the system and remoteness of the area, there is a lack of organized research on the subject. An attempt has been made to explore and analyze the mechanism, effectiveness and transformation of traditional tenure system. The study is entirely based on qualitative information collected through; Key Informants Interviews; and Focused Group Discussions (FGDs). The study reveals that the natural resources are kept and managed under the traditional tenure system called wesh, which was temporal in the initial times and transformed to the permanent tenure late on. Both the systems have their own strengths and weaknesses regarding their effectiveness in the sustainable management of natural resources.
Ahmed SA. 1976. Millennium and Charisma among Pathans. London, UK; Routledge and Kegan Paul.
Barth F. 1956. Indus and Swat Kohistan: An Ethnographic Survey. Studies Honouring the Centennial of Universitetets Ethnografiske Museum. 2, Oslo.
Bernbaum E. 1997. The spiritual and cultural significance of mountains. In: Messerli B. & Ives JD, Eds., Mountains of the World: A Global Priority 21, p. 39-60). New York and London: The Parthenon Publishing Group.
Bjonness IM. 1983. External economic dependency and changing human adjustment to marginal environments in High Himalaya, Nepal. Mountain Research and Development 3, 263-272.
Britan G. Denich SB. 1976. Environment and Choice in Rapid Social Change. American Ethnologist 3, 55-72.
Bromely WD. 1991. Environment and economy; property rights and public policy. Massachusetts 02142, USA: Cambridge Center.
Caroe O. 1958. The Pathans 550 BC to AD 1957. Oxford University Press, Karachi, Pakistan.
Carr DL. 2006. A tale of two roads: Land tenure, poverty, and politics on the Guatemalan frontier. Geoforum 37, 94-103.
Ehlers E. 1995. Die Organisation von Raum und Zeit – Bevölkerungswachstum, Ressourcenmanagement und angepaßte Landnutzung im Bagrot/Karakorum. Petermanns Geographische Mitteilungen, 139(2), 105-120.
Ehlers E. 1996. Population growth, resource management and well adapted land-use in the Bagrot/Karakoram. Applied Geography and Development 48, 7-28.
Ehlers E. 1997. Traditional environmental knowledge and consciousness and the problem of sustained agricultural development. Applied geography and development 49, 79-95.
Ehlers E. 2008. Sustainability – Indigenous Knowledge Systems – Traditional Land Uses in the Northern Areas of Pakistan as an Example. In Israr-Ud-Din (Ed.), Proceedings of the Third Hindu Kush Cultural Conference p 108-125. Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford University Press.
Ehlers E, Kreutzmann H. Eds. 2000. High Mountain Pastoralism in Northern Pakistan. Stuttgart: Erdkundliches Wissen 132.
Haq F. 2012. Tenure system as a determinant of resource management and utilization in mountainous areas: A study of Roghani territory in Dir districts Northern Pakistan. M.Phil Thesis, University of Peshawar, Pakistan.
Haq F. Fazlur-Rahman, Tabassum I, Ihsanullah, Nasir JM, Khan AS. 2012. Handling the scarce mountains’ resources: Role of Indigenous tenure arrangements in land management in Roghani Valley, Northern Pakistan. PUTAJ Science 19, 71-90.
Haq F, Tabassum I, Fazlur-Rahman. 2011. Disappearance of plant species from the hillsides of village Shalkani, Northern Pakistan and its linkage with socioeconomic conditions of people of the area. Pakistan Journal of Plant Sciences 17, 1-13.
Fazlur-Rahman. 2007. Agro-pastoral economy, property rights and locally formulated resource management mechanisms in Astor valley, northern areas of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Geography 17, 55-75.
Fürer-Haimendorf C. 1971. Comparisons between the Mountain Peoples of the Philippines and Some Tribes of North-East India. Geographical Journal 137, 339-348.
Government of the Punjab. 1898. Gazetteer of the Peshawar district 1897—98. Government of the Punjab, Lahore. [Reprint by Sang-e-Meel Publication Lahore 1989].
Grotzbach E, Stadel C. 1997. Mountain peoples and cultures. In: Messerli B & Ives JD, Eds., Mountains of the World: A Global Priority (21, p 17-37). New York and London: The Parthenon Publishing Group.
Guillet D. 1983. Towards a Cultural Ecology of Mountains: The Central Andes and the Himalaya Compared. Current Anthropology 24(5), 561-574.
Ives JD, Messerli B, Spiess E. 1997. Mountains of the World – A Global Priority. In: Messerli B & Ives JD, Eds., Mountains of the World: A Global Priority, 21, 1-15. New York and London: The Parthenon Publishing Group.
Janjua JZ. 1998. Traditional change in the Darel & Tangir Valley. In: Karakorum-Hindukush-Himalaya: Dynamics & Change. In I. Stellercht (Ed.), Cultural Area Karakorum Scientific Studies (p 415-427). Germany: Koln.
Jodha NS. 1992 Mountain perspective and sustainability: a framework for development strategies. In Jodha NS, Banskota M, Partap T, Eds., Sustainable Mountain Agriculture (pp. 41-82). New Delhi, India: Oxford & IBH Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd.
Jodha NS, Banskota M, Partap T. Eds. 1992. Strategies for the sustainable development of mountain agriculture: An overview. India: Oxford and IBH.
Kakembo V. 2001. Trends in vegetation degradation in relation to land tenure, rainfall, and population changes in Peddle district, Eastern Cape, South Africa. Journal of Environmental Management, 28(1), 39-46.
MacDonald KI. 1998. Rationality, Representation, and the Risk Mediating Characteristics of a Karakoram Mountain Farming System. Human Ecology 26, 287-321.
Messerli B, Ives JD. Eds. 1997. Mountains of the World. A Global Priority. New York, London: The Parthenon Publishing Group.
Nafees M, Khan H, Jan MR. 2009. Circulatory land tenure and its social and ecological impacts; a case study of the village Allahdhandheri in North Pakistan. Mountain Research and Development 29, 59-66.
Netting MR. 1976. What Alpine peasants have in common: observations on communal tenure in a Swiss village. Human Ecology 4, 135-146.
Nichols R. 2001. Settling the Frontier: Land law and society in the Peshawar valley, 1500-1900. Oxford University Press, Karachi, Pakistan.
Ostrom E. 1990. Governing the commons, the evolution of institutions for collective action. London: Cambridge University Press.
Prakash S. 1998. Social institutions and common property resources in the mountains. Mountain Research and Development 18, 1-3.
Pugh J. 2005. Social Transformation and Participatory Planning in St. Lucia. Area 37, 384-392.
Pyne G. 2004. Land tenure and property rights: an introduction. Habitat International 28, 167-179.
Rahman F, Haq F, Tabassum I, Ullah I. 2014. Socio-economic drivers of deforestation in Roghani Valley, Hindu-Raj Mountains, Northern Pakistan. Journal of Mountain Science 11, 167-179.
Rhoades RE, Thompson SI. 1975. Adaptive strategies in Alpine environments: Beyond ecological particularism. American Ethnologist 2, 5-35.
Robinson BE, Holland MB, Naughton-Treves L. 2013. Does secure land tenure save forests? A meta-analysis of the relationship between land tenure and tropical deforestation. Global Environmental Change (in press). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2013.05.012.
Schmidt M. 2004. Interdependencies and reciprocity of private and common property resources in the central Karakorum. Erdkunde 58, 315-330.
Sjostedt M. 2011. The impact of secure land tenure on water access levels in sub-Saharan Africa: the case of Botswana and Zambia. Habitat International 35, 133-140.
Spain WJ. 1973. The Way of the Pathans. Karachi, Pakistan: Oxford University Press.
Staley J. 1969. Economy and society in the high mountains of North Pakistan. Modern Asian Studies 33, 225-243.
Stober G, Herbers H. 2000. Animal husbandry in domestic economies: Organization, legal aspects and present changes of combined mountain agriculture in Yasin (Northern Areas, Pakistan. In: Ehlers E & Kreutzmann H, Eds., High Mountain Pastoralism in Northern Pakistan (p. 37-59). Stuttgart. Erdkundliches Wissen132.
Sultan-i-Rome. 2005. Swat state under the Walis. Unpublished PhD Dissertation submitted to the University of Peshawar, Pakistan.
Sultan-I-Rome. 2007. Pukhtu: The Pukhtun Code of Life. Available via DIALOG: (Cited 20 September 2011). http://www.valleyswat.net/literature/papers.html.
Sultan-I-Rome. 2008. Land ownership in swat: Historical and contemporary perspective. Available via DIALOG: (Cited 20 September 2011). http://www.valleyswat.net/literature/papers.html.
Thomas RB. 1979. Effects of change on high mountain human adaptive patterns. In: Webber JP, Ed. High altitude geoecology. Colorado, USA: Westview Press 5500 Central Avenue, Boulder.
Walters BB. 2012. Do property rights matter for conservation? Family land, forests and trees in Saint Lucia, West Indies. Human Ecology 40, 863-878.
Zarin MM, Schmidt LR. 1984. Discussion with the Hariq; Land tenure and transhumance in Indus Kohistan. Center for Southeast Asia Studies, University of California.