Indirect-use and option values of mangrove forest ecosystem in Day-asan, Surigao City, Philippines

Paper Details

Research Paper 15/01/2023
Views (508) Download (111)

Indirect-use and option values of mangrove forest ecosystem in Day-asan, Surigao City, Philippines

Jerry B. Acero, Dovelyn C. Resullar
Int. J. Biosci.22( 1), 147-157, January 2023.
Certificate: IJB 2023 [Generate Certificate]


Mangrove is a wetland type of forest referred also as the tidally influenced swamp ecosystem within intertidal zone of tropical and subtropical latitudes (Tomlinson, 1986). This forest provides numerous direct and indirect benefits to people and environment. However, most of the benefits appreciated are focused on direct-use or marketed benefits making mangrove forests as undervalued resources today. This study aimed to asses the Indirect-use and Option Values of mangroves in Barangay Day-asan, Surigao City as components of forest economic valuation. The Replacement Cost and Contingent Valuation Methods were used in value determination. Survey showed that as to socio-demographic profile of the participants, there is a total of 451 households in Barangay Day-asan. Most of the participants were female (68.89%), married (34.07%) and attained secondary level of education (42.22%). Fishing is the very source of income among the local residents. The total Indirect-use value of mangrove forest of the study area is approximated at Php6239.15/hectare/per year valuated by means of Coastal Protection and Carbon Sequestration Values. The study revealed that mangrove forests in this coastal community provide considerable economic and environmental benefits, particularly as a source of family income, provision of quality air to breath and in protecting local communities from disasters associated with the climate change. Most of the residents agree to take part in mangrove conservation programs and initiatives with an average Willingness To Pay of Php594,115.20 per year as conservation funds for the sustainable management of the mangrove resources in their community.


Agaloos BD. 1994. Re-afforestation of mangrove forests in the Republic of the Philippines. In: Proceedings international tropical timber organization workshop: development and dissemination of re-afforestation techniques of mangrove forests. Japan Association for Mangroves, Japan pp. 75-98.

Ahmed N, Bunting SW, Glaser M, Flaherty MS, Diana JS. 2017. Can greening of aquaculture sequester blue carbon? Ambio 46, 468-477.

Alongi DM. 2014. Carbon cycling and storage in mangrove forests. Annual Review of Marine Science 6, 195-219.

American Museum of Natural History. 2013. Mangrove threats and solutions. http://www.amnh. org/explore/science-bulletins/bio/documentaries/ mangroves-the-roots-of-the-sea/mangrove-threats-and-solutions.

Bann C. 1988. The Economic of Mangroves: A Manual for Researchers Economy and Environment Program for Southeast Asia. pp 24-28.

Barangay Profile. 2020. Barangay Local Government Unit (BLGU) of Barangay Day-asan, Surigao City Profile 2020. Accessed February 2, 2020. pp 10.

Barbier EB. 2016. The protective service of mangrove ecosystems: A review of valuation methods. Marine Pollution Bulletin 109(2), 676-681.

Beger M, McGowa J, Treml EA, Green AL, White AT, Wolff NH. 2015. Integrating regional conservation priorities for multiple objectives into national policy. Nat. Commun 6, 8208. DOI: 10.1038/ncomms9208.

Beitl CM, Rahimzadeh-Bajgiran P, Bravo M, Ortega-Pacheco D, Bird K. 2019. New valuation for defying degradation: Visualizing mangrove forest dynamics and local stewardship with remote sensing in coastal Ecuador. Geoforum 98, 123-132.

Brown WH, Fischer AF. 1920. Philippine Mangrove Swamps. Brown WH, editor. Minor products of Philippine forests I, Bureau Forestry Bull zz, 9-125.

Camacho DM Jr, Ambi FM. 2011. Tree biomass and Carbon Stock of a Community-managed mangrove forest in Bohol, Philippines. Forest Sci Tech 7(4), 161-167.

Consolacion FA. 2017. Economic Valuation of Selected Mangrove Forest Ecosystems Along Macajalar Bay, Misamis Oriental. Masteral Thesis. MSU-IIT, Iligan City.

Danielsen F, Sorensen MK, Olwig MF, Selvam V, Parish F, Burgess N, Hiraishi T, Karunagaran VM, Quarto A, Suryadiputra N. 2005. The Asian Tsunami: A Protective Role for Coastal Vegetation. Science 310, 643.

De la Torre I, Barnhizer D. 2003. The blues of a revolution : the damaging impacts of shrimp farming. Industrial Shrimp Action Network, Tacoma, WA.

Ellison AM. 2008. Managing Mangroves with benthic biodiversity in Mind: Moving beyond roving banditry. J Sea Res 59, 2-15.

Fernandez PM. 1978. Regulations and their Impact on mangroves areas for aquaculture the Philippine experience. Workshop proceeding on the conservation of mangrove areas to aquaculture, Iloilo pp 78-84.

Garcia KB, Malabrigo PL, Gevaña DT. 2014. Philippines’ Mangrove Ecosystem: Status, Threats and Conservation. In I. Faridah-Hanum, A. Latiff, K. R. Hakeem, & M. Ozturk (Eds.), Mangrove Ecosystems of Asia (pp. 81-94). Springer New York.

Gunawardena M, Rowan JS. 2005. Economic Valuation of a Mangrove Ecosystem Threatened by Shrimp Aquaculture in Sri Lanka. Environmental Management 36(4), 535-550.

Hakim L, Siswanto D, Nakagoshi N. 2017. Mangrove Conservation in Java: The Ecotourism Development Perspectives. The Journal of Tropical Life Science Open Access Freely available online 7(3), 277-285, DOI: 10.11594/jtls.07.03.14.

Harada K, Imamura F, Hiraishi T. 2002. Experimental Study on the effect in reducing tsunami by the coastal permeable structures. Final Proc. Int. Offshore Polar Eng. Cont. USA, 652-658.

Jayagoda DD. 2016. Community-based Mangrove Forest Management in Association with Sustainable Tourism in Puerto Princesa City of the Philippines. International Journal of Sustainable Future for Human Security 3(2), 23-30.

Khairnar SO, Solanki BV, Junwei L. 2019. Mangrove ecosystem – its threats and conservation. Aquafind, College of Fisheries, Ocean University of China, Qingdao, Shandong, Peoples Republic of China.

Khan MF, Rahman A, Giessen L. 2020. Mangrove forest policy and management: Prevailing policy issues, actors’ public claims and informal interests in the Sundarbans of Bangladesh. Ocean & Coastal Management 186, 105090. /10.1016/j.ocecoaman.2019.105090.

King S. 2020. Option, Insurance and Bequest Values in Ecosystem Accounting. 6. Ecosystem Assessment and Policy Support, UNEP-WCMC. Pp 1-6.

Lal R. 2008. Soil Carbon Sequestration Impacts on Global Climate Change and Food Security. Science 304(5677), 1623-1627. /science.1097396.

Lomoljo NH. 2017. Carbon Stock Assessment of Mangrove Forests Along Macajalar Bay, Misamis Oriental, Philippines. Mindanao State University-Iligan Institute of Technology. Master’s Thesis pp, 45-60.

Macintosh DJ. 2010. Coastal Community Livelihoods: Implication of intact ecosystem services. Paper presented at the 2010 Katoomba Meeting XVII held June 23-24, 2010 in Hanoi Vietnam. http:/

Malik AR, Fensholt R, Mertz, O. 2015. Economic Valuation of Mangroves for comparison with commercial Aquaculture in South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Forests 6(12), 3028-3044, DOI: 10.3390 /f6093028.

Mazda Y. 1997. Mangrove as a coastal protection from waves in the Tong King delta,Vietnam. Mangrove Salt Marshes 1, 127-135.

Mendoza A, Alura D. 2001. Mangrove structure on the eastern coast of Samar Island Philippines (pp 423-425). In: DE Stott, RH Mohtar, GC Steinhard (eds) Sustaining the Global farm. Selected papers from the 10th International Soil Conservation Organization Meeting held May 24-29, 1999 at Purdue University and the USDA-ARS National Soil Erosion Research Laboratory.

Navarro RJ. 2020. Above-ground Biomass and Carbon Stock Estimation of Mangrove Forest Ecosystem in Dya-asan, Surigao City, Philippines. Undergraduate Thesis. Surigao State College of Technology – Mainit Campus.

Naylor R, Drew M. 1998. Valuing mangrove resources in Kosrae, Micronesia. Environment and Development Economics 3(4), 471-490. https:// /10.1017 /S1355770X98000242

Negelkerken I, Blader S. 2008. The Habbit function of mangroves for terrestrial and Marina fauna: a review. Aqu Bot 89(2), 155-185.

Othman MA. 2004. Value of mangroves in coastal protection. Undefined. https:/ /www.semanticscholar .org /paper/Value-of-mangroves-in-coastal-protection-Othman/16167bbde5dee471a7d673d1dec3e0f9db820fde

Primavera JH. 2000. Development and conservation of the Philippine mangroves: institutional issues. Ecol 35, 91-106.

Punay E. 2013. CA Junks Petition vs. Php 14 billion reclamation. Accessed 8 May 2013.

Saka MS, Jimoh O, Ajewole OI. 2015. Willingness to Pay for Environmental Service Functions of Mangrove Forest in Uzere, Delta State, Nigeria. Journal of Resources Development and Management. ISSN 2422-8397 An International Peer-reviewed Journal Vol. 16.

Samson MS, Rollon RN. 2008. Growth performance of planted mangroves in the Philippines: revisiting forest management strategies. Ambio 37(4), 234-240.

Selvam V. 2005. Impact assessment for Mangrove and Shelterbelt Plantations by Tsunami for Tamil Nadu Forestry Project.  Report submitted to the Japan Bank for International Cooperation, New Delhi.

Selvam V. 2007. Trees And Shrubs Of The Maldives. ISBN: 978-974-7946-94-9 © FAO Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific. Printed by Thammada Press Co., Ltd., Bangkok.

Song AM, Dressler WH, Satizábal P, Fabinyi M. 2021. From conversion to conservation to carbon: The changing policy discourse on mangrove governance and use in the Philippines. Journal of Rural Studies 82, 184-195. j.jrurstud.2021.01.008

Tomlinson PB. 1986. The Botany of Mangroves. Cambridge (UK): Cambridge University Press. pp419.

Walton ME, Samonte-Tan M, Primavera JH, Edwards-Jones G, Vay LL. 2006. Are mangroves worth replanting? The direct economic benefits of a community-based reforestation project. Environmental Conservation 33(4), 335-343.

World Bank. 2017. Carbon Pricing. Retrieved 14 October 2022, from results/2017/12/01/carbon-pricing.