J. Bio. Env. Sci.5(6), 213-231, December 2014
Increasing human population pressure has decreased the availability of arable land and it is no longer feasible to use extended fallow periods to restore soil fertility. The fallow period which would have restored soil fertility and organic carbon is reduced to lengths that cannot regenerate soil productivity leading to the non-sustainability of the farming systems. Microbiological and biochemical soil properties are very reactive to small changes occurring in management practices. Therefore, it is possible to use them in a basic analysis for evaluating the effects of the application of different sources and amount of organic matter on soil characteristics during experimental trials. The chemical and physical stability of the compost determines the shelf-life and applicability of compost for various uses. Stable compost is one that shows an advanced degree of organic matter decomposition with resistance to further decomposition. Lignocellulose is the major structural material of plant bodies and constitutes the enormously important bio renewable resource used to make building materials, paper, textiles and many polymer derivatives. Heavy metals have sensitive influence on microbial community structure in soil, which ultimately lead to the changes of microbial amounts microbial activities including enzymes. Vermicomposting has been widely identified as one of the potential activity to reduce the quantity of solid waste that need to be sent to the landfills. Vermicomposting is classified as biological treatment under intermediate treatment technologies of solid waste management.
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