Influence of earthworms and humic acid on some microbial indices in a Pb contaminated soil

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/12/2014
Views (163) Download (3)

Influence of earthworms and humic acid on some microbial indices in a Pb contaminated soil

Mohammad Fahramand, Fateme Panahi, Mohammad Osman Omara, Abbas Keshtehgar, Hamid Reza Mobasser, Khashayar Rigi
J. Bio. Env. Sci.5( 6), 213-231, December 2014.
Certificate: JBES 2014 [Generate Certificate]


Increasing human population pressure has decreased the availability of arable land and it is no longer feasible to use extended fallow periods to restore soil fertility. The fallow period which would have restored soil fertility and organic carbon is reduced to lengths that cannot regenerate soil productivity leading to the non-sustainability of the farming systems. Microbiological and biochemical soil properties are very reactive to small changes occurring in management practices. Therefore, it is possible to use them in a basic analysis for evaluating the effects of the application of different sources and amount of organic matter on soil characteristics during experimental trials. The chemical and physical stability of the compost determines the shelf-life and applicability of compost for various uses. Stable compost is one that shows an advanced degree of organic matter decomposition with resistance to further decomposition. Lignocellulose is the major structural material of plant bodies and constitutes the enormously important bio renewable resource used to make building materials, paper, textiles and many polymer derivatives. Heavy metals have sensitive influence on microbial community structure in soil, which ultimately lead to the changes of microbial amounts microbial activities including enzymes. Vermicomposting has been widely identified as one of the potential activity to reduce the quantity of solid waste that need to be sent to the landfills. Vermicomposting is classified as biological treatment under intermediate treatment technologies of solid waste management.


Adachi M, Bekku YS, Rashidah W, Okuda T, Koizumi H. 2006. Differences in  soil respiration between different tropical ecosystems. Appl Soil Ecol. 34, 258–265

Adeboye MKA, Iwuafor ENO, Agbenin JO. 2006. The effects of crop rotation and nitrogen fertilization on soil chemical and microbial properties in a Guinea Savanna Alfisol of Nigeria. Journal of plant Soil sciences . 281, 97–107

Aira M, Monroy F, Dominguez J. 2007. Eisenia fetida (Oligochaeta: Lumbricidae) Modifies the structure and physiological capabilities of microbial communities improving carbon mineralization during vermicomposting of pig manure. Microbial Ecology journal. 54, 662-671.

Akınci S, Buyükkeskin T, Eroglu A, Erdogan BE. 2009. The effect of humic acid on nutrient composition in broad bean (Vicia faba L) Roots Not. Soil Tillage Research journal. 1, 81–87.

Anderson T, Domsch KH. 1993. The metabolic quotient for CO2 (qCO2) as a speci®c activity parameter to assess the effects of en- vironmental conditions, such as pH, on the microbial biomass of the soil. Soil Biology & Biochemistry. 25, 393±395.

Asawalam DO. 2006. Influence of cropping intensity on the production and properties of earthworm casts in a leucaena alley cropping system. Biology and Fertility of Soils. 42, 506-512.

Baker GH, Barrett VJ, Carter PJ, Cayley JWD, Saul GR. 1993. The influence of fertilizer on the abundance and diversity of earthworms in pastures in western Victoria. Proceedings of the 7th Australian Agronomy Conference. 12, 312-315.

Basu S, Behera N. 1993. The effect of tropical forest conversion on soil microbial biomass. Biology Fertil Soils. 16, 302–304.

Behera N, Sahani U. 2003. Soil microbial biomass and activity in response to Eucalyptus plantation and natural regeneration on tropical soil. Ecology journal Management. 174, 1–11

Bohlen PJ, Parmelee RW, Allen MF, Ketterings QM. 1999. Differential effects of earthworms on nitrogen cycling from various Nitrogen-15-Labeled substrates. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 63, 882-890.

Borken W, Muhs A, Beese F. 2002. Application of compost in spruce forests: ects on soil respiration, basal respiration and microbial biomass, Forest Ecology Management. 159, 49-58

Bunemann  EK,  Schwenke  GD,  Zwieten  LV. 2006. Impacts of agricultural inputs on soil organisms-a review. Australian Journal of Soil Research. 44(4), 379-406.

Capowiez Y, Berard A. 2006. Assessment of the effects of imidacloprid on the behaviour of two earthworm species (Aporrectodea nocturna and Allolophora icterica) using 2D terraria. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety. 64(2), 198-206.

Capowiez Y, Rault M, Costagliolia G, Mazzia C. 2005. Lethal and sublethal effects of imidacloprid on two earthworm species (Aporrectodea nocturna and Allolobophera icterica). Biology and Fertility of Soils. 41(3), 135-143.

Cheng SP, Grosse W, Karrenbrock F, Thoennessen M. 2002. Efficiency of constructed wetlands in decontamination of water polluted by heavy metals. Soil Biology & Biochemistry. 18(3), 317-325.

Civeira G, Lavado RS. 2006. Organic matter addition effect on some hydrological properties in a degraded urban soil. Soil Biological journal. 24, 123-130.

Haynes RJ, Naidu R. 1998. Influence of lime, fertilizer and manure applications on soil organic matter content and soil physical conditions: a review. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems. 51, 123–137.

Hoffman GK, Austin GS. 1994. Agricultural materials: soil additives; In: D.D. Carr, Senior Editor, Industrial Rocks and Minerals, 6th Edition. Society of Mining, Metallurgy and Exploration. Microbial Ecology journal . 12, 89-96.

Jordan D, Miles RJ, Hubbard VC, Lorenz T. 2004. Effect of management practices and cropping systems on earthworm abundance and microbial activity in sanborn field : a 115-year-old agricultural field. Pedobiologia. 48(2), 99-110.

Kalka J, Miksch K, Grabinska-Sota E, Zbrog A. 2002. The effects of pyrethroid insecticides on earthworm Eisenia fetida. Fresenius Environmental Bulletin. 11(2), 114-117.

Langan AM, Shaw EM. 2006. Responses of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris(L.) to iron phosphate and metaldehyde slug peelet formulations. Applied Soil Ecology. 34, 184-189.

Lofs-Holmin A. 1983. Influences of agricultural practices on earthworm (Lumbricidae). Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica . 33, 225-234.

Lydy MJ, Linck SL. 2003. Assessing the impact of triazine herbicide on organophosphate insecticide toxicity to the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Archives of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 45(3), 343-349.

Mackay AD, Kladivko J. 1985. Earthworms and rate of breakdown of soybean and maize residues in soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 17(6), 851-857.

Mahajan S, Kanwar SS, Sharma SP. 2007. Long-term effect of mineral fertilizers and amendements on microbial dynamics in an alfisol of western Himalayas.Indian Journal of Microbiology. 47(1), 85-89.

Marhan S, Scheu S. 2005. The influence of mineral and organic fertilizers on the growth of the endogeic earthworm Octolasion tyrtanum (Savigny). Pedobilogia. 49(3), 239-249.

Marinissen JCY. 1992. Population dynamics of earthworms in a silt loam soil under conventional and integrated arable farming during two years with different weather patterns. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 24(12), 1647-1654.

Morowati M. 2000. Histochemical and histopathological study of the intestine of the earthworm (Pheretima elongata) exposed to a field dose of the herbicide glyphosate. The Environmentalist. 20(2), 105-111.

Schmidt O, Clements RO, Donaldson G. 2003. Why do cereal–legume intercrops support large earthworm populations? Applied Soil Ecology. 22(2), 181-190.

Scullion J, Ramshaw GA. 1987. Effects of various manorial treatments on earthworm activity in grassland. Biological Agriculture & Horticulture. 4, 271-281

Senapati BK, Dash MC. 1984. Functional role of earthworms in decomposer subsystem. Tropical Ecology. 25(2), 54-73.

Tindaon F, Benckiser G, Ottow JCG. 2011. Side effects of nitrification on non-target microbial processes in soils. Journal of Tropical Soils 16(1), 7-16.

Zaman M, Matsushima M, Chang SX, Inubushi K, Nguyen L, Goto S, Kaneko F, Yoneyama T. 2004. Nitrogen mineralization, N2O production and soil microbiological properties as affected by longterm applications of sewage sludge composts, Biological Fertile. Soils. 40, 101–109.

Zmora-Nahum S, Markovitch O, Tarchitzky J, Chen Y. 2003. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) as a parameter of compost maturity, Soil Biol journal. 37, 120- 143.