Int. J. Biosci.2(11), 146-165, November 2012
A field experiment was conducted in RCBD replicated trice in the main seasons of 2008-2009 at Imla, Gambella Agricultural Research Institute, Ethiopia, to evaluate the effects of four levels each of N/P (0/0, 46/23, 92/46 and 138/69 kg N/P ha-1) and farmyard manure/Leucaena leucocephala green manure (FYM/LGM) (0/0, 5/5, 10/0 and 0/10 t ha-1) on soil pH, OC, Mg and Ca and soil and NERICA-3 rice (Oryza sativa x Oryza glaberrima) tissue N, P, K and S contents. Soil OC, pH, N, K and Ca were decreased while the soil P, Mg and S were increased from the initial status. Application of 5/5 t FYM/LGM ha– 1 led to the highest soil pH which increased by 9.2% than the lowest. The highest soil N, P and S (increased by 20.9, 31.4 and 54.9%, respectively, over the control) were obtained from 138/69 kg N/P ha-1; while soil Mg obtained by the interaction of 46/23 kg N/P and 0/10 t FYM/LGM ha-1. Ca found highest by the interaction of 138/69 kg N/P and 0/10 t FYM/LGM ha-1 over other treatments. Maximum soil N recorded by 5/5 t FYM/LGM ha-1 that increased by 27.3% over the control. Soil P, K and S values were highest with 0/10 t FYM/LGM ha-1 over the other treatments (increased by 24.6, 37.9 and 30.11% over their control, respectively). Highest value of tissue N and K obtained from 92/46 and 138/69 kg N/P ha-1 (increased by 71.2 and 44.3% over the lowest, respectively). The effects of fertilizers on tissue P were insignificant. Increased tissue S was found from 138/69 kg N/P and 5/5 t FYM/LGM ha-1, representing an increase of 18.7 and 43.8% than their control. These results confirmed that organic manures could increase soil fertility and nutrient content of rice tissue, and then can be used to substitute chemical NPK fertilizers for sustainable rice production.
Abid M., Ahmad F, Ahmad N, Ahmad I. 2002. Effect of phosphorus on growth, yield and mineral composition of wheat in different textured saline-sodic soils. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 1(4), 472-475.
Antil RS, Singh M. 2007. Effects of organic maures and fertilizers on organic matter and nutrients status of the soil. Journal of Agronomy and Soil Science 53, 519-528.
AOAC (Association of Official Analytical Chemist).1994. Official method of analysis. 12th Ed. Washington, DC.
Bell PF, Kovar JL. 2009. Rice. pp. 25-28. In: Campbell, C. R. (ed.). Reference sufficiency ranges for plant analysis in the southern region of the United States. Southern Cooperative Series Bulletin No. 394.
Black CA. 1965. Methods of soil analysis. Part 2: Chemical and microbiological properties. Inc. Madison, Wisconsin, American Society of Agronomy 9, 1572.
Bodruzzaman M, Sadat MA, Meisner CA, Hosain ABS, Khan HH. 2002. Direct and residual effects of applied organic manures on yield in wheat-rice cropping pattern. Symposium No. 05, Paper No. 781, Wheat Res. Centre, BARI, Bangladesh.
Buresh RJ, Witt C. 2008. Balancing fertilizer use and profit in Asia’s irrigated rice systems. Better Crops 92, 18-22.
Chen JH. 2006. The combined use of chemical and organic fertilizers and/or biofertilizer for crop growth and soil fertility. International Workshop on Sustained Management of the Soil-Rhizosphere System for Efficient Crop Production and Fertilizer Use, 16-20 October 2006, Land Development Department, Bangkok, Thailand.
Chettri GB, Ghimiray M, Floyed CN. 2003. Effects of farm yard manure, fertilizers and green manuring in rice-wheat systems in Bhutan: Results from A long-term experiment. Cambridge Journal 39(2), 129-144.
Defoer T, Macros CSW, Monty PJ, Frederic L, Olaf E, Robert GG. 2004. Challenges and technical opportunities for rice-based production systems for food security and poverty alleviation in Sub-Saharan Africa., FAO Rice Conference 12-13 February 2004, Rome, Italy.
Dobermann A, Cassman KG, Mamaril CP, Sheehy SE. 1998. Management of phosphorus, potassium, and sulfur in intensive, irrigated lowland rice. Field Crops Research 56, 113-138.
Fageria NK. 2009. The use of nutrients in crop plants. CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 2000. Fertilizers and their use, 4th Edition. International Fertilizer Industry Association, Rome, Italy.
FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization). 2006. Plant nutrition for food security: A guide for integrated nutrient management. FAO, Fert. Plant Nutr. Bull., 16, Rome, Italy.
Gurpreet S, Jalota SK, Yadvinder S. 2007. Manuring and residue management effects on physical properties of a soil under the rice-wheat system in Punjab, India. Soil and Tillage Research 94(1), 229-238.
Haefele SM, Wopersis MCS, Schloebohm AM, Wiechmann H. 2004. Long term fertility experiment for irrigated rice in the West African Sahel: Effect on soil characteristics. Field Crops Research 85, 61-77.
Hasan MM, Mian MJA, Hussain MA. 2009. Effects of long term application of manures and fertilizers on soil properties, yield and nutrient uptake by T-Aman Rice. Bangladesh Research Publications Journal 3(1), 774-786.
Hoeft RG, Walsh LM, Keeney DR. 1973. Evaluation of various extractants for. available soil sulfur. Soil Science Society of the America Proceeding 37, 401-404.
Jackson ML. 1973. Soil chemical analysis. Prentice Hall of India Ltd., New Delhi, India.
Janzen HH, Schaalji GB. 1992. Barley response to nitrogen, non nutritional benefits of legume green manure. Plant and Soil 142, 19-30.
Kaur N, Benipal DS. 2006. Effect of crop residue and farmyard manure on K forms on soils of long term fertility experiment. Indian Journal of Crop Sciences 1(1-2), 161-164.
Khan A, Chandra D, Nanda P, Singh S, Ghorai A. 2004. Integrated nutrient management for sustainable rice production. Journal of Agronomy Soil Science 50 (2), 161-165.
Ladha JK, Dawe D, Ventura TS, Singh U, Ventura W, Watanabe I. 2000. Long-term effects of urea and green manure on rice yields and nitrogen balance. Soil Science Society of the America Journal 64, 1993-2001.
Linquist BA, Phengsouvanna V, Sengxue P. 2007. Benefits of organic residues and chemical fertilizer to productivity of rain-fed lowland rice and to soil nutrient balance. Journal of Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems 79(1), 57-72.
Main MJA. 1990. Air, water and nutrient interaction in paddy soils. A PhD Thesis, Department of Soil Science, BAU, Mymensingh.
Main MJA. 1991. Air, water and nutrient dynamics in paddy soils. Seasonal changes in electro chemical properties of soil. Proceeding of BAU Research Progress 5(1), 255-267.
Main MJA, Moslehuddin AZM. 1999. Soil fertility changes under different cropping patterns in long term fertility trials. Proc. Workshop Long Term Expt. Soil Pert. Rice based cropping system, March 8-10, 1999, BRRI, Gazipur.
Mathur GM. 1997, Effect of long-term application of fertilizers and manures on soil properties and yield under cotton-wheat rotation in north-west Rajasthan. Journal of Indian Society of Soil Science 45(2), 288-292.
Mgbeze GC, Abu Y. 2010. The effects of NPK and farm yard manure on the growth and development of the African yam bean. African Journal of Biotechnology 9(37), 6085-6090.
Mohanty SK, Sharma AR. 2000. Nutrient management in rice. Fert. News 45, 51-58.
Myint AK, Yamakawa T, Zenmyo T. 2009. Plant growth, seed yield and apparent nutrient recovery of rice by the application of manure and fertilizer as different nitrogen sources on paddy soils. Journal of Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu University 54, 329-337.
Myint AK, Yamakawa T, Kajiharaand Y, Zenmyo T. 2010. Application of different organic and mineral fertilizers on the growth, yield and nutrient accumulation of rice in a japanese ordinary paddy field. Science World Journal 5(2), 47-54.
Narayan D, Lal B. 2006. Effect of green manuring on soil properties and yield of wheat under different soil depths in Alfisols under semi-arid conditions in central India. Bulletin of the National Institute of Ecology 17, 31-36.
Oo AN, Banterng A, Polthanee A, Trelo-Ges V. 2010. The effect of different fertilizers management strategies on growth and yield of upland black glutinous rice and soil property. Asian Journal of Plant Sciences 9(7), 414-422.
NMA (National Meteorological Agency). 2009. Period averages and climatologically standard normal’s. Unpublished, Gambella Branch Office, Ethiopia.
Ohyama N, Katono M, Hasegawa T. 1998. Effects of long term application of organic materials to the paddy field originated form Aso volcanic ash on the soil fertility and rice growth. In: Effects on the rice growth and nutrient uptake for the initial three years. Proceeding, Faculty of Agriculture, Kyushu Tokai University 17, 9-24.
Okwuagwu MI, Alleh ME, Osemwota IO. 2003. The effects of organic and inorganic manure on soil properties and yield of okra in Nigeria. African Crop Science Proceedings 6, 390-393.
Olsen SR, Somers LE. 1982. Phosphorus: In: A. L. Page (eds.) Methods of soil analysis, 2nd Edition. AM. Soc. Agron., 9, Part 2, Madison, Wisconsin, USA.
laniappan SP, Annadurai K. 1999. Organic Farming: Theory and Practice. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, India.
Palm CA, Murwira HK , Carter SE. 1998. Organic matter management: from science to practice. In: Waddington SR, Murwira HK, Pa Kumwenda JDT, Hikwa D, Tagwira F, eds. Soil Fertility Research for Maize Based Farming System in Malawi and Zambabwe. Proceedings of the Soil Fertility Network Results and Planning Workshop, Mutare, 7-11 Jul 1997, Soil Fert Net/CIMMYT, Harare, 173-177
Pattanayak SK, Mishra KN, Jena MK, Nayak RK. 2001. Evaluation of green manure crops fertilized with various phosphorus sources and their effect on subsequent rice crop. Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science 49, 285-291.
Prakash YS, Bhadoria PBS, Rakshit A, Wais A. 2002. Response of basmati rice to integrated nutrient sources in lateritic soil of Eastern India. Italian Journal of Agronomy 6(2), 143-150.
Prasad B, Sinha SK. 2000. Long-term effects of fertilizers and organic manures on crop yields, nutrient balance, and soil properties in Rice-Wheat Cropping System in Bihar. In: Abrol IP, Bronson KF, Duxbury JM, Gupta RK, eds. Long-term soil fertility experiments in rice-wheat cropping systems. Rice-Wheat Consortium for the Indo-Gangetic Plains: Rice-Wheat Consortium Paper Series 6. New Delhi, India, 105-119.
Prasad R, Power JF. 1995. Nitrification Inhibitors for Agriculture, Health and the Environment. Advances in Agronomy 54, 233-281.
Rani P, Francis H, Kandasamy P , Palaniappan SP. 1991. Integrated nutrient management in Tamil Nadu. Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore.
Rao SA, Srivastava S. 2001. Soil testing for targeted crop response. Fifty Years of Natural Research. Mangement Research, 230-244.
Reddy SR. 2006. Agronomy of field crops. Gayatri Offset Press, New Delhi, India.
Regmi AP, Ladha JK, Pathak H, Pasuquin E, Bueno C, Dawe D, Hobbs PR, Joshy D, Maskey SL, Pandey SP. 2002. Yield and soil fertility trends in a 20-year rice-rice-wheat experiment in Nepal. Soil Science Society of the America Journal 66, 857-867.
Rhoades JD. 1982. In: Methods of soil analysis, Part 2. 2nd edition (Page, A. L., R. H. Miller and D. R. Keeney, Eds.). America Society of Agronomy, 9 Madison, USA
Rowell DL. 1999. Soil science-Methods and applications.Department of Soil Science, University of Reading, Longman, Singapoor.
Sahlemedhin S, Bekele T. 2000. Procedures for for soil and plant analysis. Ethiopian Agricultural Research Organization, National Soil Research Center, Technical Paper 74.
Sahrawat KL. 2004. Organic matter accumulation in submerged soils. Advances in Agronomy, 81: 169-201.
Sarwar G, Hussain N, Schmeisky H, Muhammad S, Ibrahim M, Ahmad S. 2008. Efficiency of various organic residues for enhancing rice-wheat production under normal soil conditions. Pakistan Journal of Botechnology 40, 2107-2113.
Sarwar G, Schmeisky H, Hussain N, Muhammad S, Tahir MA, Saleem U. 2009. Variations in nutrient concentrations of wheat and paddy as affected by different levels of compost and chemical fertilizer in normal Soil. Pakistan Journal of Biotechnology 41(5), 2403-2410.
Sarwar MA, Ibrahim M, Tahir M, Ahmad K, Khan ZI, Valeem EE. 2010. Appraisal of pressmud and inorganic fertilizers on soil properties, yield and sugarcane quality. Pakistan Journal of Botechnology 42(2), 1361-1367.
SAS (Statistical Analysis System) Institute. 2003. SAS Version 9. 1.2 © 2002-2003. SAS Institute, Inc., Cary, NC.
Shah Z, Ahmad MI. 2006. Effect of integrated use of farm yard manure and urea on yield and nitrogen uptake of wheat. Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science 1(1), 60-65.
Sharma SN, Prasad R, Singh S. 1995. The role of mungbean residues and Sesbania aculeata green manure in the nitrogen economy of rice-wheat cropping system. Plant and Soil 172, 123-129.
Sharma SN, Prasad R. 1999. Effect of Sesbania green manuring and mungbean residue incorporation on productivity and nitrogen uptake of a rice-wheat cropping. Bioresource Technology 67, 171-175.
Sharma SN, Prasad R, Gangaiah B, Ram M. 2008. Comparative effect of organic and inorganic nutrition on productivity, sustainability and profitability of basmati rice-wheat cropping system. In: Menon MK, Paul YS, Muralidhara N, eds. Global Organic Agribusiness: India Arrives. India Organic 2008 Seminar, Division of Agronomy, Indian Agricultural Research Institute, New Delhi, India, 57-65.
Singh AK, Amgain LP, Singh SS. 1998. Integrated nutrient management in rice-wheat system under midland situation. pp. 450-451. In: Extended Summaries of 21st International Congress on Agronomy, held at New Delhi, during November 23rd, New Delhi, India.
Singh KN, Prasad B, Sinha SK. 2001. Effect of integrated nutrient management on a Typic Haplaquant on yield and nutrient availability in a rice-wheat cropping system. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research 52, 855-858.
Singh YV, Singh BV, Pabbi S, Singh PK. 2007. Impact of organic farming on yield and quality of BASMATI rice and soil Properties. Indian Agricultural Research. Institute, New Delhi, India.
Singh Y, Singh B, Ladha JK, Khind CS, Gupta RK, Meelu OP, Pasuquin E. 2004. Long-term effect of organic inputs on yield and soil fertility in the rice-wheat rotation. Soil Science Society of the American Journal 68, 845-853.
Suzuki A. 1997. Fertilization of rice in Japan. Japan FAO Association, Tokyo, Japan.
Titilola AO. 2006. Effects of fertilizer treatments on soil chemical properties and crop yields in a cassava-based cropping system. Journal of Applied Sciences Research 2(12): 1112-1116.
Tomar VPS, Narain P, Dadhwal KS. 1992. Effect of perennial mulches on moisture conservation and soil building properties through agro forestry. Agroforestry Systems 19(3), 241-252.
Uenosono S, Nagatomo M. 1998. Effect of application of only manure on yield and quality of paddy rice. Kyushu Agricultural Research 60, 56.
Vasundhara R. 2006. Studies on soil properties as influenced by organic farming in northern transitional zone of Karnataka. M.Sc. Thesis, Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, UAS, Dharwad, India.
Walkely A, Black CA. 1954. An examination of digestion methods for determining soil organic matter and proposed modification of the chromic acid titration methods. Soil Science Journal 37, 29-38.
Whalen JK, Chang C, Clayton GW, Carefoot JP. 2000. Cattle manure amendments can increase the pH of acid soils. Soil Science Society of the American Journal 64: 962-966.
Xu ZH, Saffigna PG, Myers RJK, Chapman L. 1993. Nitrogen cycling in leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala) alley cropping in semi-arid tropic: I. Response of maize growth to addition of nitrogen fertilizer and plant residues. Plant and Soil 148, 73-82.
Yadav RL, Yadav DS, Singh RM, Kumar A. 1998. Long-term effects of inorganic fertilizer inputs on crop productivity in a rice-wheat cropping system. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystem 51, 193-200.