Int. J. Biosci.19(4), 19-31, October 2021
The PM accumulation process by plants is quite energetic, and even after one day, fluctuations in PM load on foliage can be significant. Rain and, to a lesser extent, wind influenced PM deposition on leaves, with the latter being more species-specific. This research explored the temporal and spatial variations in the concentrations of Particulate Matter (PM) collected on two evergreen plant species (Nerium oleander and Ligustrum lucidum) leaves commonly grown along with the roadside Quetta city Balochistan, Pakistan. The impact of wind and rain on the quantity of PM collected on vegetation was investigated. The PM (g⋅m−2) concentrations held by N. oleander and L. lucidum leaves considerably varied among the places (from 7.70 – 10.7 & 6.24 – 9.53) with significant variation and over time (from 5.94 – 18.0 & 5.32 – 16.5). The highest PM concentrations on the foliage of N. oleander and L. lucidum growing at the most contaminated site, Saryab road, were determined. The largest and lowest levels of accumulation PM followed in August and January, respectively, throughout the year. Rainfall events eliminated a significant percentage of the accumulated PM on leaves (30%, 42% and 55% of PM from leaves of N. oleander and 40, 62 and 95% from L. lucidum leaves) and strong winds (20%. 35% and 47% of PM N. oleander and 25%, 45% and 71% from L. lucidum), It’s also possible that heavier precipitation or a higher maximum wind speed will help to eliminate more PM from the leaves. Rainfall primarily cleared coarse and large particles, but small fragments clung to the foliage more tenaciously. These findings suggested that when assessing total PM accumulation on leaves, the influence of regional weather circumstances (such as strong wind or rainfall), altered seasons, and levels of pollution should be judged.
Bell ML, Morgenstern RD, Harrington W. 2011. Quantifying the human health benefits of air pollution policies: Review of recent studies and new directions in accountability research. Environmental. Science. Policy 14, 357–368. [CrossRef].
Escobedo FJ, Kroeger T, Wagner JE. 2011. Urban forests and pollution mitigation: Analyzing ecosystem services and disservices. Environmental. Pollution 159(8-9), 2078-2087.
European Environment Agency (EEA). 2015. Air quality in Europe 2015 report. Publications Office of the European Union, Luxembourg.
Farmer A. 2002. Effects of particulates. In: Bell JNB, Treshow M (eds) Air pollution and plant life, hoboken. John Wiley & Sons Inc, New York, p187–199.
Freer-Smith PH, Beckett KP, Taylor G. 2005. Deposition velocities to Sorbus aria, Acer campestre, Populus deltoids × trichocarpa “Beaupr’e”, Pinus nigra and × Cupressocyparis leylandii for coarse, fine and ultra-fine particles in the urban environment,” Environmental. Pollution 133(1), 157–167.
Grantz DA, Garner JHB, Johnson DW. 2003. Ecological effects of particulate matter. Environment international 29(2-3), 213-239.
He C, Qiub K, Alahmadc A, Pott R. 2019. Particulate matter capturing capacity of roadside evergreen vegetation during the winter season Urban Forestry and Urban Greening, (in press). https://www.Researchgate.Net/publication/337017974
Janhäll S. 2015. Review on urban vegetation and particle air pollution–deposition and dispersion. Atmospheric. Environment, 105, 130–137. [CrossRef].
Juda-Rezler K, Reizer M, Oudinet JP. 2011. Determination and analysis of PM10 source apportionment during episodes of air pollution in Central Eastern European urban areas: The case of wintertime 2006. Atmospheric. Environment, 45(36), 6557-6566.
Kardel F, Wuyts K, Babanezhad M. 2010. Assessing urban habitat quality based on specific leaf area and stomatal characteristics of Plantago lanceolata L,” Environmental. Pollution 158(3), 788–794.
Kim KH, Kabir E, Kabir S. 2015. A review on the human health impact of airborne particulate matter. Environment international 74, p 136-143.
Laghari SK, Zaidi MA, Razaq G. 2015. Impact of solid waste burning air pollution on some physio-anatomical characteristics of some plants. Pakistan Journal of Botany 47(1), 225-232.
Leghari SK, Zaidi MA. 2013. Effect of Air Pollution on the Leaf Morphology of Common Plant Species of Quetta City. Pakistan Journal of Botany 45(S1), 447-454.
Leghari SK, Akbar A, Qasim S, Ullah S, Asrar M, Roail H, Ahamed S, Mehmood K, Ali I. 2019. Estimating Anticipated Performance Index and Air pollution tolerance index of some trees and Ornamental plant species for the Construction of Green Belts. Polish Journal of Environmental. Studies 28, 1759-1769 [online]. http://dx.doi.org/10.15244/PJOES/89587
Leghari SK, Saeed S, Asrar M, Ahmed A, Tariq I, Marri AA, Shawani NA. 2018a. Response of sweet cherry (Prunus avium L.) pollen grains to vehicular exhaust pollution at Quetta, Balochistan, Pakistan. Applied Ecology and Environmental Research 16(4), 4387-4399.
Leghari SK, Zaidi MA, Siddiqui MF, Sarangzai AM, Shawani GR. 2018b. Stone crushing dust affects the yield and quality of apricot fruit. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Science 55(2).
Leonard RJ, McArthur C, Hochuli DF. 2016. Particulate matter deposition on roadside plants and the importance of leaf trait combinations. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. 20, 249–253. [CrossRef].
Liu Y, Hong X, Zhang T, Li C, Shi L, Ren J. 2014. In: Administration, N.I.P., PRC (Eds.), Method for Determining Quality of Particulate Matters Retained on Plant Leaves in Different Particle Size Ranges. Beijing Forestry University, China.
Liu-Gitz L, Britz SJ, Wergin WP. 2000. Blue light inhibits stomatal development in soybean isolines containing kaempferol-3-O-2𝐺-glycosyl-gentiobioside (K9), A unique flavonoid glycoside,” Plant, Cell and Environment 23(8), 883–891.
Matzka J, Maher BA. 1999. Magnetic biomonitoring of roadside tree leaves: identification of spatial and temporal variations in vehicle-derived particulates. Atmospheric Environment 33(28), 4565–4569.
Mo L, Ma Z, Xu Y, Sun F, Lun X, Liu X, Chen J, Yu X. 2015. Assessing the capacity of plant species to accumulate particulate matter in Beijing, China. PLoS ONE 10, e0140664. [CrossRef].
Mughal SA, Leghari SK, Achakzai, AKK, Asrar M, Ismail T, Ponya Z, Rehman S, Sadiq N. 2018. Effects of road side pollution on physio-morphology of apple. International Journal of Biosciences 12(6), 334-345 [online]. http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/12.6.334-345
Neinhuis C, Barthlott W. 1998. “Seasonal changes of leaf surface contamination in beech, oak, and ginkgo in relation to leaf micromorphology and wettability, New Phytologist 138(1), 91–98.
Nguyen T, Yu X, Zhang Z, Liu M, Liu X. 2015. Relationship between types of urban forest and PM2.5 capture at three growth stages of leaves. Journal of Environmental Science-China., 27, 33–41. [CrossRef].
Nowak DJ, Crane DE, Stevens JC. 2006. Air pollution removal by urban trees and shrubs in the United States. Urban forestry and urban greening 4(3-4), 115-123.
Nowak, DJ, Hirabayashi S, Bodine A, Hoehn R. 2013. Modeled PM2.5 removal by trees in Ten U.S. Cities and associated health effects, Environmental Pollution, 178, 395–402.
Ould-Dada Z, Baghini NM. 2001. “Resuspension of small particles from tree surfaces, Atmospheric Environment 35(22), 3799–3809.
Pal A, Kulshreshtha K, Ahmad KJ, Behl HM. 2002. Do leaf surface characters play a role in plant resistance to Auto-exhaust pollution?” Flora, 197(1), 47–55.
Pope III CA, Burnett RT, Thurston GD, Thun MJ, Calle EE, Krewski D, Godleski JJ. 2004. Cardiovascular mortality and long-term exposure to particulate air pollution: epidemiological evidence of general pathophysiological pathways of disease. Circulation 109(1), 71-77.
Popek R, Gawronska H, Sæbø A, Wrochna M, Gawronski SW. 2013. Particulate matter on foliage of 13 woody species: Deposition on surfaces and phytostabilisation in waxes a 3–year study. International Journal of Phytoremediation 15, 245– 256. [CrossRef].
Popek R, Łukowski A, Karolewski P. 2017. Particulate matter accumulation – further differences between native Prunus padus and nonnative Prunus Serotina. Dendrobiology 78, 85–95. [CrossRef].
Prajapati SK, Tripathi BD. 2008. Seasonal variation of leaf dust accumulation and pigment content in plant species exposed to urban particulates pollution, Journal of Environmental Quality 37(3), 865–870.
Prusty BAK, Mishra PC, Azeez PA. 2005. Dust accumulation and leaf pigment content in vegetation near the national highway at Sambalpur, Orissa, India, Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 60(2), 228–235.
Przybysz A, Sæbø A, Hanslin HM, Gawro´ Nski SW. 2014. Accumulation of particulate matter and trace elements on vegetation as afected by pollution level, rainfall and the passage of time. Science of the Total Environment 481, 360–369. [CrossRef].
Rodrıguez-Germade I, Mohamed KJ, Rey D, Rubio B, Garc´ıa A. 2014. The influence of weather and climate on the reliability of magnetic properties of tree leaves as proxies for air pollution monitoring, Science of the Total Environment 468, 892–902.
Sæbø A, Popek R, Nawrot B, Hanslin HM, Gawronska H, Gawro´nski SW. 2012. Plant species di_erences in particulate matter accumulation on leaf surfaces. Science of the Total Environment, 427–428, 347–354. [CrossRef].
Shao TJ, Zhao JB, Ma L. 2008. The spatial temporal variation characteristics of air pollutants in X’ian, Journal of Arid Land Resources and Environment 22(7), 77–83.
Sternberg T, Viles H, Cathersides A, Edwards M. 2010 Dust particulate absorption by ivy (Hedera helix L) on historic walls in urban Environments, Science of the Total Environment 409(1), 162–168.
Tallis M, Taylor G, Sinnett D, Freer-Smith P. 2011. Estimating the removal of atmospheric particulate pollution by the urban tree canopy of London, under current and future environments,” Landscape and Urban Planning 103(2), 129–138.
Wang ZH, Li JB. 2006. “Capacity of dust uptake by leaf surface of Euonymus japonicas Thunb and the morphology of captured particle in air polluted city, Ecological Environment 15(2), 327–330.
Wang, H, Hui Shi, Wang Y. 2015a. Effects of Weather, Time, and Pollution Level on the Amount of Particulate Matter Deposited on Leaves of Ligustrum lucidum. Hindawi Publishing Corporation. The Scientific World Journal, Article ID 935942, 1-8 pages http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/935942
Wang H, Shi H, Wang Y. 2015b. Effects of weather, time, and pollution level on the amount of particulate matter deposited on leaves of Ligustrum lucidum. Science. World Journal, 935942. [CrossRef].
Wang L, Gong H, Liao W, Wang Z. 2015c. Accumulation of particles on the surface of leaves during leaf expansion. Science of the Total Environment 532, 420–434.
Wang L, Hasi E, Liu L. Gao S. 2006. “Effects of weather condition in spring on particulates density on conifers leaves in Beijing, Chinese Journal of Ecology, 25(8), 998–1002.
Weerakkody U, Dover JW, Mitchell P, Reiling K. 2018. Evaluating the impact of individual leaf traits on atmospheric particulate matter accumulation using natural and synthetic leaves. Urban forestry and urban greening 30, 98–107. [CrossRef].
Xian Environmental Protection Bureau. 2010. Air quality daily [EB/OL],” April 2009–May 2010, http://www.xaepb.gov.cn/ajax/comm/pm25/newMapindex.jsp
Xu X, Zhang Z, Bao L, Mo L, Yu X, Fan D, Lun X. 2017. Influence of rainfall duration and intensity on particulate matter removal from plant leaves. Science of the Total Environment 609, 11–16. [CrossRef] [PubMed].