Insect diversity visitors to gadung 21 variety of Mango flower on off Season and on Season

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/02/2019
Views (311) Download (9)

Insect diversity visitors to gadung 21 variety of Mango flower on off Season and on Season

Wiwin Windriyanti, Sri Karindah, Liliek Sulistyowati, Bambang Tri Rahardjo
J. Bio. Env. Sci.14( 2), 63-70, February 2019.
Certificate: JBES 2019 [Generate Certificate]


Mango plantations (Mangifera indica Linn.) are generally flowering once a year. By technological innovation, the mango inflorescences period can be carried out over the flower season (Off Season). The purpose of this study is to examine the insect diversity of visitors to mango flowers in spring (on-season and off-season). Research was carried out in March-May and July – September 2017. The study was conducted in Rembang District, Pasuruan Regency, East Java with the topography of 60 meters above sea level with an average temperature of 26°C – 32°C and a minimum humidity of 80% – 88%. The insect diversity of visitors to mango flowers is observed by purposive sampling method, and periodic direct observation (scan sampling) is carried out. Data were analyzed with the help of the R statistic application version 3.4.1 and vegan package version 2.4-4. The results of the study were 17 species, 12 families, and 5 orders. The percentage of insects is dominated by 51% order Hymenoptera, 46% Diptera, Lepidoptera, Homoptera, and Hemiptera 1% each. The results of the analysis of the diversity of insect communities of visitors to manga flowers show that overall they are still classified as moderate with index values (1≤ H’≤ 3). Evenness of insects in the moderate category with an index value of E = 0.6, and species richness in the low category with an index value of R = 1.4. Domonation index D = 0.5 and close to value 1, which means that there is a dominant of species. Insect species of visitors to the mango flower Gadung clone 21, are dominated by Chysomya sp., Apis sp. Eristalis sp., Trigona sp. and Crematogaster spp.


Borror DJ, White RE. 1970. A Field guide to insect America North Mexico. New York, USA: Houghton Mifflin Company 404pp.

Core Team R. 2016. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. Vienna. Austria: R Foundation for Statistical Computing.

Danks HV. 2003. Studying insect photoperiodism and rhythmicity: Components, approaches and lessons. European Journal of Entomology 100, 209–221.

Diperta Kabupaten Pasuruan. 2013. Profil Tanaman Mangga Gadung Klonal 21 Kabupaten Pasuruan.

Ellahi F, Lanjar AG, Chang BH, Hussain F, Khushk GM, Raza A, Chang AH, Miano FN. 2017. Insect biodiversity on mix cropping of chilli and onion crops. International Journal of Fauna and Biological Studies 4, 14-19.

Ernawati, Kahono S. 2010. Keragaman serangga pengunjung bunga pada lima jenis tanaman buah di jawa timur. Zoo Indonesia 20, 27-38.

Goulet H, Huber JT. 1993. Hymenoptera of the world : An Identification guide to families. Research Branch Agriculture Canada Publication, Canada.

Husen S, Ishartati E, Sukardi. 2017. Penerapan Teknologi Pembungkusan Buah dan Produksi Mangga Diluar Musim, in: Seminar Nasional Dan Gelar Produk. Malang 636-641.

Kementerian Pertanian. 2016. Pemberian Tanda Daftar Varietas Tanaman Hortikultara. Keputusan Menteri Pertanian Nomor : 121/Kpts/SR.120/D.2.7.

Klein AM, Vaissière BE, Cane JH, Steffan-Dewenter I, Cunningham SA, Kremen C, Tscharntke T. 2007. Importance of pollinators in changing landscapes for world crops. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences 274, 303-313.

Kumar S, Joshi PC, Nath P, Singh VK, Mansotra DK. 2016. Role of Insects in Pollination of Mango Trees. International Research Journal of Biological Sciences 5, 64-67.

Magurran AE. 2004. Measuring Biological Diversity. Victoria, Australia: Blackwell Publishing 215pp.

Maloba S, Ambuko J, Hutchinson M, Owino W. 2017. Off-Season Flower Induction in Mango Fruits Using Ethephon and Potassium Nitrate. Journal of Agricultural Science 9, 158.

Mukherjee SK. 1948. The Varieties of mango (M. indica L.) and their classification. Bulletin of The Botanical Society of Bengal 2, 101-133.

Naumann. 1991. Hymenoptera (Waps, bees, ants). In: Naumann, Ed. The Insect of Australia. A Textbook for Students and Research Workers. Melbourne University Press 917-1000.

Odum EP. 1998. Dasar-dasar Ekologi (Translated by Samingan T and Srigdanono B). Yogyakarta: Gajah Mada Press.

Oksanen J, Blanchet FG, Kindt R, Legendre P, Minchin PR, O’Hara RB, Simpson GL, Solymos P, Stevens MHH, Wagner H. 2016. vegan: Community Ecology Package. R package version 2, 2-1.

Pillai AK, Kumar MG, Kuttalam S. 2017. Computation of arthropod biodiversity in grapes ecosystem. Journal of Entomology and Zoology studies 5, 447-454.

Pollination Guelph. Pollinator Identification (, accessed on March 14th 2018

Promosiana A, Atmojo HD. 2015. Statistik Produksi Hortikultura Tahun 2014. Direktorat Jenderal Holtikultura, Kementerian Pertanian, Jakarta.

Singh RN. 1990. Mango. New Delhi, India: Indian Council of Agricultular research 136pp.

Sung IH, Lin MY, Chang CH, Cheng AS, Chen WS, Ho KK. 2006. Pollinators and Their Behaviors on Mango Flowers in Southern Taiwan. Formosan Entomol 26, 161-170.

Upadhyay RK. 2014. Flower visiting, nectar feeding and oviposition behavioral responses in lepidopteran, hymenopteran and dipteran pollen collecting insect vectors. International Journal of Chemical and Biochemical Sciences 5, 26-37.

Upton M. 1991. Methods for Collecting, preserving and studying insect and allied form. Canberra, Australia: The Australia Entomological Society, 86pp.

Willmer PG. 1983. Thermal constraints on activity patterns in nectar‐feeding insects. Ecological Entomology 8, 455–469.

Yuniastuti S. 2012. Inovasi Teknologi dan Diseminasi Pembuahan Mangga di Luar Musim di Jawa Timur. Balai Pengkajian Teknologi Pertanian Jawa timur 121-133.