Insect floral visitors of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.) and impact of the foraging activities on the pollination, pod and seed yields at Maroua – Cameroon

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Research Paper 01/04/2018
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Insect floral visitors of pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan L. Millsp.) and impact of the foraging activities on the pollination, pod and seed yields at Maroua – Cameroon

Joseph Blaise Pando, Denis Djonwangwe, Olivier Balti Moudelsia, Fernand-Nestor Tchuenguem Fohouo, Joseph Lebel Tamesse
J. Bio. Env. Sci.12( 4), 48-58, April 2018.
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To evaluate the abundance, diversity and the impact of the insect on the pod and seed yields of pigeon pea, in this study, its foraging and pollinating activities were examined in Maroua. Observations were made on 100 inflorescences per treatment. The treatments included unlimited floral access to all visitors and bagging of flowers to prevent access to all visitors. In addition, information on all floral visitors was recorded. Out of the 2206 individual insects (16 species) collected 64.91% were bees whereas 35.09% were non-bee species including butterflies (34.00%) and flies (01.09%). Their activity was highest in the morning hours (11:00 a.m.–12:00 a.m.). The foraging  resources  of flower visitors  collected  as  well  as  their  activities  on  the pigeon pea flowers suggest pollen movement which could lead to cross pollination. Insects were effective pollinator, and of course their visits increased fruiting rate, seeds/pod, normal seed and weight seed. Insect foraging  resulted  in  a significant  increment  of  the  fruiting  rate  by  71.64 %,  as  well  as  the  number  of  seeds/pod  by  09.11 %,  the percentage of normal seeds by 24.00 %  and the percentage of weight seed by 23.40 % in Maroua. Then,  the  foraging  activity  of  insects  mainly  bees  on C. cajan appears  as  the limiting factor in the production of this crop. Therefore, the installation and the conservation of the M. bituberculata nests close to C. cajan field are recommended to maintain and improve yields in the region.


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