Insecticidal efficacy of aqueous plant extracts against lepidopteran larvae infesting maize in the Sudano-Guinean savannah zone of Northern Cameroon

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Research Paper 01/11/2021
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Insecticidal efficacy of aqueous plant extracts against lepidopteran larvae infesting maize in the Sudano-Guinean savannah zone of Northern Cameroon

Bruno Olivier Rouama Paggo, Raoul Borkeum Barry, Elias Nchiwan Nukenine
Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res.19( 5), 46-59, November 2021.
Certificate: IJAAR 2021 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

Insect infestation constitutes a major constraint to maize production in the tropics and subtropics. To control pest insects, chemical insecticides are widely applied. This has become challenging as insects have developed resistance to these chemicals, in addition to the rising toxicity to humans and the negative environmental impacts. This situation has prompted the need for the development of safer, more effective and sustainable plant-based pest management products. Therefore, the insecticidal potentials of aqueous extracts from the dried pulverized leaves of Calotropis procera (C.p.), Callistemon rigidus (C.r.) and Plectranthus glandulosus (P.g.) were assessed against lepidopteran larvae infesting maize plants for the 2018 and 2019 cropping seasons at Ngaoundere in the Sudano-Guinean Savannah zone of northern Cameroon. Treatments included Cypercot® (Cy) as reference insecticide (positive control), phyto-insecticides (C.p., C.r., P.g.) and no insecticide (C0) (negative control). The different products were applied early in the morning (between 6:00 h and 8:00 h) 50 days after sowing, with distinct manual gauge sprayers and, repeated every two weeks until flowering. Four dominant species of lepidopteran insects (Spodoptera frugiperda, Eldana saccharina, Busseola fusca and Sesamia calamitis) were considered in the field experiment. All tested phyto-insecticides significantly reduced the larval densities of Spodoptera frugiperda (28.88%), E. saccharina (61.6%) and B. fusca (22.85%). In addition, these phyto-insecticides substantially diminished the damage caused on leaves (30%), stems (25.86%) and cobs (24.7%) and, somewhat increased maize yield performance across the two cropping seasons. The beneficial effects of the tested phyto-insecticide products increase over time. Based on our results, these phyto-insecticides could be considered as potential natural insecticides for the management of lepidopteran larvae infesting maize plants in the field.

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