Interspecific genetic diversity of Iranian Achillea species based on morphological traits and total protein profiling

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/06/2015
Views (183) Download (4)

Interspecific genetic diversity of Iranian Achillea species based on morphological traits and total protein profiling

Mehdi Mottaghi, Parvin Salehi Shanjani, Ali Ashraf Jafari, Mehdi Mirza, Mohammad Reza Bihamta
J. Bio. Env. Sci.6( 6), 125-135, June 2015.
Certificate: JBES 2015 [Generate Certificate]


Total protein banding patterns and morphological traits were used to assess genetic diversity among six Achillea species including A. millefolium, A. filipendulina, A. biebersteinii, A. nobilis, A. tenuifolia and A. vermicularis. Variance analysis of morphological traits showed that all evaluated traits were significantly different among species. High genetic variation was observed for both total protein profiles and phenotypic traits. Among the six Achillea species, the mean polymorphism% (PPL) and expected heterozigosity (He) values were 54.82% and 0.192, respectively. A. tenuifolia (PPL and He values: 89.47% and 0.315, respectively) had the highest level of variability, whereas A. millefolium had the lowest level of variability (PPL and He values: 34.21% and 0.132, respectively). The highest genetic distance and the lowest genetic similarity was detected between A. millefolium and A. nobilis (0.278 and 0.238, respectively), which allocated them in separated groups and made them a potential pair for hybridization to reach to high heterosis effects in their hybrids. Molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed that the differences among species accounted for 30% of the total variation, whereas differences within species were 70%. The principle coordinate analysis (PCoA) confirmed the results of clustering analysis. Morphological analysis in most cases corresponded to those obtained through protein analyses. These results showed that conservation strategies should be provided to maintain high diversity aiming to improve future breeding programs.


Abd-Eltwab MH, Zahran FA. 2010. RAPD, ISSR and RFLP Analysis of Phylogenetic Relationships among Congeneric Species (Anthemideae, Asteraceae) in Egypt. International Journal of Botany 6, 1-10.

Aburjai M, Hudaib M. 2006. Antiplatelet, antibacterial and antifungal activities of Achillea falcata extracts and evaluation of volatile oil composition. Pharmacognosy Magazine 2, 191-197.

Al-Qura’n S. 2008. Taxonomical and pharmacological survey of therapeutic plants in Jordan. Journal of Natural Products 1, 10-26.

Azani N, Sheidai M, Attar F. 2009. Morphological and palynological studies in some Achillea L. species (Asteraceae) of Iran. Iranian Journal of Botany 15, 213-226.

Bartram T. 1995. Encyclopedia of Herbal Medicine, 1st edition, London: Grace Publishers p. 114 – 125.

Chevalier A. 1996. The encyclopedia of medicinal plants. London: Dorling Kindersley Publishing p. 102-105.

Dabrowska J. 2002. Variation of ligulate florets in some taxa of the genus Achillea L. Roczniki Akademii Rolniczej w Poznani 5, 31-38.

El-Shanshoury AR. 2002. Genetic diversity of Lathyrus sativus in relation to geographical distribution. The second International Conference on Biological Science, 27-28 April, p. 48. Faculty of Science, Tanta University, Egypt, Abstract.

Ertugrul K, Arslan E, Tugay O. 2010. Characterization of Consolida S.F. Gray (Ranun-culaceae) taxa in Turkey by seed storage protein electrophoresis. Turkish Journal of Biochemistry 35 (2), 99–104.

Excoffier L, Smouse P, Quattro J. 1992. Analysis of molecular variances among DNA restriction data. Genetics 131, 479-491.

Excoffier L. 1995. AMOVA 1.55 (Analysis of Molecular Variance). Geneva, Switzerland: University of Geneva, Genetics and Biometry Laboratory.

Griffiths M. 1994. Index of garden plants. London:MacMillan Publishing p. 79 – 95.

Guo YP, Saukel J, Mittermayr R, Ehrendorfer F. 2005. AFLP analyses demonstrate genetic divergence, hybridization, and multiple polyploidization in the evolution of Achillea (Asteraceae-Anthemideae). New Phytologist 166, 273 – 290.

Gurevitch, J. 1992. Sources of variation in leaf shape among two populations of Achillea lanulosa. Genetics 130, 385-394.

Heywood VH. 2002. The conservation of genetic and chemical diversity in medicinal and aromatic plants. In: Sener B, Ed. Biodiversity: biomolecular aspects of biodiversity and innovative utilization. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, p.13 – 22.

Huber-morath A. 1986. Achillea. In: Rechinger KH, Ed. Flora Iranica, Graz: Akademische Druck-und Verlagsanstalt 158, 49 – 71.

Karami Ghale Seiedi R, Salehi Shanjani P, Mozafarian V, Jafari AA, Gorji A. 2012. Genetic Diversity and differentiation of Achillea tenuifolia, A.wilhelmsii and A.Vermicularis using soluble protein marker. 12th Iranian genetics congress.

Khan A, Khalil S, Hilaire R, Rehman A, Mexal L. 2011. Growth and physiology of yarrow species Achillea millefolium cv. Cerise Queen and Achillea filipendulina cv. Parker Gold at optimum and limited moisture. Australian journal of crop science 5(13), 1698 – 1706.

Kharma A, Hassawi D. 2006. The Antimicrobial activity and the genetic relationship of Achillea species. Biotechnology 5, 501- 507.

Laemmli UK. 1970. Cleavage of structural proteins during the assembly of the head of bacteriophage T4. Nature 227, 680-685.

Lioi L, Sparvoli F, Bollini R. 1999. Variation and genomic polymorphism of lectin-related proteins in Lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus L.) seeds. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution 46, 175-82.

Lofgren A. 2002. Effects of isolation on distribution, fecundity and survival in the self-incompatible Achillea millefolium (L.). Eco science 9, 503-508.

Martins SR, Vences FJ, Sanenz De, Miera LE, Barroso MR, Carnide V. 2006. RAPD analysis of genetic diversity among and within Portuguese landraces of common white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Science Horticulture 108, 133-142.

Meo AA, Khan MA. 2003. Pollen morphology of Achillea (Compositae-Anthemoideae) species from Pakistan. Pakistan Journal Weed Science Research 9, 253-258.

Miller MP. 1997. AMOVA-PREP 1.01 (a program for the preparation of AMOVA input files from dominant-markers raw data), Department of Biological Sciences, Northern Arizona University, USA.

Mohammadi SA, Prasanna BM. 2003. Analysis of genetic diversity in crop plants-salient statistical tools and considerations. Crop Science 43, 1235-1248.

Morsy A. 2007. Molecular Variations of Achillea fragrantissima (Forssk.) SCH. BIP. Growing in Five Areas of South Sinai. International Journal of Agriculture & Biology 9 (1), 11-17.

Nadiri F, Salehi Shanjani P, Rabie M, Alizadeh MA. 2012. Genetic Diversity and differentiation of Achillea bibershtini, A.nobilis and A milefolium using soluble protein marker. 12th Iranian genetics congress.

Nei M. 1978. Estimation of average heterozygosity and genetic distance from a small number of individuals. Genetics 89, 583-590.

Nosrati H, Hosseinpour-Feizi MA, Nikniazi M, Razban-Haghighi A. 2012. Genetic variation among different accessions of Lathyrus sativus (Fabaceae) revealed by RAPDs. Botanica serbica 36 (1), 41-47.

Pirkhezri M, Hassani ME, Hadian J. 2010. Genetic diversity in different populations of Matricaria chamomilla L. growing in southwest of Iran, based on morphological and RAPD markers. Research journal of medicinal plant 4(1), 1-13.

Porter WM, Smith DHJr. 1982. Detection of identification errors in germplasm collection. Crop Science 22, 701-703.

Rahimmalek M, Sayed Tabatabaei BE, Arzani A, Etemadi N. 2009. Assessment of genetic diversity among and within Achillea species using Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP). Biochemical Systematics and Ecology 37, 354–361.

Rahimmalek M. 2012. Genetic relationships among Achillea tenuifolia accessions using molecular and morphological Markers. Plant omics journal 5(2), 128-135.

Rohlf  FJ.  1993.  NTSYS-pc,  Ver  1.80.  NY,  USA: Distribution by Exeter Software.

Salehi P, Ashraf Jafari A, Kohi L. 2012. Genetic variation and relationships between local and exotic germplasm of dactyis glomerata, based on morphological and total protein markers. Romanian agricultural research 29, 103-115.

Sulborska A, Weryszko-Chmielewska E. 2006. Morphology, anatomy and ultrastructure of yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) floral nectaries. Acta Agrobotanica 59, 17-28.

Takrouni MM, Boussaid M. 2010. Genetic diversity and population’s structure in Tunisian strawberry tree (Arbutus unedo L.) Science Horticulture 126, 330-337.

Uysal T, Arslan E, Tugay O, Ertuğrul K. 2010. Determination of the relationship between some Centaurea species based on SDS-PAGE. Turkish Journal of Biology 34,125-131.

Valant-vetschera KM, Kastner A. 2000. Character analysis in Achillea Sect. Santolinoidea (Compositae–Anthemideae): part I. leaf and floral morphology. Edinburgh Journal of Botany 57 (2), 189–208.

Vetter S, Lambrou M, Franz C, Ehrendorfer F. 1996. Cytogenetics of experimental hybrids within the Achillea millefolium complex (yarrow). Caryologia: International Journal of Cytology, Cytosystematics and Cytogenetics 49,1-12.

Vogel JM, Powell W, Rafalski A, Morgante M, Tudo JD, Taramino G, Biddle P, Hanafey M, Tingley SV. 1994. Application of genetic diagnostics to plant genome analysis: comparison of marker systems. In: Bruce E, Ed. Second international symposium on the applications of biotechnology to tree culture protection and utilization. Bloomington Minnesota, USA, p. 119-124.

Yeh FC, Yang RC, Boyle T. 1999. POPGENE version 1.32, Microsoft window base software for population genetic analysis: a quick user’s guide. Alberta, Canada: University of Alberta, center for international forestry research.