Investigation of gallstones laproscopically removed from the patients using FTIR

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/04/2020
Views (373) Download (22)

Investigation of gallstones laproscopically removed from the patients using FTIR

Nafeesa Khatoon Shahani, Ghulam Abbas Shar, Gul Afshan Soomro, Muhammad Bachal Korai, Nisar Abbas Shar, Rafique Abbas Shar
J. Bio. Env. Sci.16( 4), 33-39, April 2020.
Certificate: JBES 2020 [Generate Certificate]


The current research work was mainly focused on the determination of the composition of gallstones laproscopically removed from the patients in Khairpur Sindh, Pakistan. Analysis of constitutes of gallstone in patients is carried out by FTIR from patients hospitalized in Khairpur Medical College Civil Hospital and from Gambat Institute of Medical Sciences Hospital during 2018 to 2019. A total of 100 (20 males and 80 females) samples of stones laproscopically removed from patients were collected and studied. Cholesterol, pure calcium carbonate, cholesterol + calcium carbonate, cholesterol + bilirubin and calcium bilirubinate stones were found in 65 (65%), 7 (7%), 10 (10%), 12 (12%) and 6 (6%) patients respectively. It is clear from examination of gallstones with Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy that in gallstones the predominant component was cholesterol either only in cholesterol stones or in mixed stones in combination with other components.


Amaral JF, Thompson WR. 1985. Gallbladder disease in the morbidly obese. American Journal of Surgery 149(4), 551-557.

Bianco G, Frongillo F, Agnes S, Nure E, Silvestrini N. 2018. Gallbladder agenesis: A case report and brief review. Annals of hepato-biliary-pancreatic surgery 22(3), 292-295.

Chandran AP, Sivarajan R, Srinivasan V, Srinivas M, Jayanthi V. 2014. Risk profile for gallstone disease in southern Indian population: is there anything new?. Indian Journal of Gastroenterology 33(3), 254-257.

Channa NA, Khand FD, Bhanger MI, Laghari MH. 2004. Surgical incidence of cholelithiasis in Hyderabad and Adjoining areas (Pakistan). Pakistan Journal of Medicinal Sciences 20(1), 13-17.

Channa NA, Khand FD, Bhanger MI. 2008. Analysis of Human Gallstones by FTIR. Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences 12(3), 552-560.

Fauziah CI, Zaibunnisa AH, Osman H, Wan Aida WM. 2016. Physicochemical analysis of cholesterol-reduced egg yolk powder and its application in mayonnaise. International Food Research Journal 23(2), 575-582.

Geetha A. 2002. Evidence for oxidative stress in the gall bladder mucosa of gall stone patients. Journal of biochemistry, molecular biology, and biophysics: JBMBB: the official journal of the Federation of Asian and Oceanian Biochemists and Molecular Biologists (FAOBMB) 6(6), 427-432.

Harding AJ. 1964. Gallstones: causes and treatments. In William Heinemann Medical Books, London.

Idris SA, Elsiddig KE, Hamza AA, Hafiz MM, Shalayel MH. 2014. Extensive quantitative analysis of gallstones. International Journal of clinical medicine 2014(5), 42-50.

Iqbal MN, Iqbal MA, Javaid R, Abbas MW. 2019. Gall stones: a fundamental clinical review. International Journal of Research in Medical Sciences 7(7), 2869.

Jaiswal S, Chamarthi S. 2016. Bile duct stones: making the radiologic diagnosis. In Multidisciplinary Management of Common Bile Duct Stones (pp.17-25). Springer, Cham.

Jonnalagadda SS, Trautwein EA, Hayes KC. 1995. Dietary fats rich in saturated fatty acids (12∶ 0, 14∶ 0, and 16∶ 0) enhance gallstone formation relative to monounsaturated fat (18∶ 1) in cholesterol‐fed hamsters. Lipids 30(5), 415-424.

Jørgensen T. 1989. Gall stones in a Danish population. Relation to weight, physical activity, smoking, coffee consumption, and diabetes mellitus. Gut 30(4), 528-534.

Kaufman HS, Magnuson TH, Pitt HA, Frasca P, Lillemoe KD. 1994. The distribution of calcium salt precipitates in the core, periphery and shell of cholesterol, black pigment and brown pigment gallstones. Hepatology 19(5), 1124-1132.

Kern F. 1983. May. Epidemiology and natural history of gallstones. In Seminars in liver disease 3(2), 87-96. © 1983 by Thieme Medical Publishers, Inc.

Khan M, Kazi TG, Afridi HI, Bilal M, Akhtar A, Khan S, Kadar S. 2017. Variation of calcium, copper and iron levels in serum, bile and stone samples of patients having different types of gallstone: A comparative study. Clinica Chimica Acta 471, 254-262.

Khand FD. 1997. Cholelithiasis in southern Sindh. Pakistan: incidence and composition of gallstones, Specialist Q 13(3), 263-70.

Kim MH, Lim BC, Myung SJ, Lee SK, Ohrr HC, Kim YT, Roe IH, Kim JH, Chung JB, Kim CD, Shim CS. 1999. Epidemiological Study on Korean Gallstone Disease (A Nationwide Cooperative Study). Digestive diseases and sciences 44(8), 1674-1683.

Kleiner O, Ramesh J, Huleihel M, Cohen B, Kantarovich K, Levi C, Polyak B, Marks RS, Mordehai J, Cohen Z, Mordechai S. 2002. A comparative study of gallstones from children and adults using FTIR spectroscopy and fluorescence microscopy. BMC gastroenterology 2(3), 1-14.

Kravets OV, Moskalenko RA. 2016. Morphological analysis of porcelain gallbladder (Doctoral dissertation, «East West» Association for Advanced Studies and Higher Education GmbH).

Liucm, Tung TH, Liu JH, Lee WL, Chou P. 2004. A community-based epidemiologic study on gallstone disease among type 2 diabetics in Kinmen, Taiwan. Digestive Diseases 22(1), 87-91.

Marteau C, Montet JC, Gerolami A. 1980. Dietary caloric intake and cholesterol lithiasis. Medecine & chirurgie digestives 9(5), 397.

Nervi F, Covarrubias C, Bravo P, Velasco N, Ulloa N, Cruz F, Fava M, Severín C, Del Pozo R, Antezana C, Valdivieso V. 1989. Influence of legume intake on biliary lipids and cholesterol saturation in young Chilean men: identification of a dietary risk factor for cholesterol gallstone formation in a highly prevalent area. Gastroenterology 96(2), 825-830.

Noorani N. 2006. The epidemiological and biochemical aspects involved in the pathogenesis of human gallstones (Cholelithiasis) in Southern Sindh, Pakistan (Doctoral dissertation, Ph. D. thesis, University of Sindh).

Ravichandran G, Lakshiminarayanan G, Gopinath D, Arumugam S. 2017. Characterisation of Gallstones Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Journal of Applied Physics 9(4), 10-18.

Sharma RK, Sonkar K, Sinha N, Rebala P, Albani AE, Behari A, Reddy DN, Farooqui A, Kapoor VK. 2016. Gallstones: a worldwide multifaceted disease and its correlations with gallbladder carcinoma. PloS one 11(11), 1-14.

Tanaka H, Imasato M, Yamazaki Y, Matsumoto K, Kunimoto K, Delpierre J, Meyer K, Zerial M, Kitamura N, Watanabe M, Tamura A. 2018. Claudin-3 regulates bile canalicular paracellular barrier and cholesterol gallstone core formation in mice. Journal of Hepatology 69(6), 1308-1316.

Thijs C, Knipschild P. 1990. Legume intake and gallstone risk: results from a case-control study. International journal of epidemiology 19(3), 660-663.

Tsai CJ, Leitzmann MF, Willett WC, Giovannucci EL. 2004. The effect of long-term intake of cis unsaturated fats on the risk for gallstone disease in men: a prospective cohort study. Annals of internal medicine 141(7), 514-522.

Vaibhaw H, Girikumar E, Mandke DH, Sinha RNP. 2019. A Histomorphological Study on Gall Bladder Lesions at a Tertiary Care Centre. Annals of International Medical and Dental Research 5(2), 39-41.

Wentrup‐Byrne E, Chua-Anusorn W, St. Pierre TG, Webb J, Ramsay A, Rintoul L. 1997. A Spectroscopic study of Thalassemic Gallstones. Biospectroscopy 3(5), 409-416.

Zhou XS, Shen GR, Wu JG, Li WH, Xu YZ, Weng SF, Soloway RD, Fu XB, Tian W, Xu Z, Shen T. 1997. A spectroscopic study of pigment gallstones in China. Biospectroscopy 3(5), 371-380.