Biopiracy of marine organisms: an emerging paradigm
By: Mahmood Khan Yousufi, Narendra Kumar Thapak
Key Words: Biopiracy, Oceans, Marine organisms, Pharmaceutical drugs, Medicines
J. Bio. Env. Sci. 18(6), 8-17, June 2021.
Certification: jbes 2021 0326 [Generate Certificate]
The modern drugs commercially available nowadays are widely isolated from natural reservoirs. Penicillin was isolated from a mold and Aspirin was isolated from a willow tree. The recent advanced scientific research has further extended the explorations for medicinal drugs in the marine reservoirs. Some of the drugs based on marine organisms have proved to be quite effective in treating diseases like cancer and Human Immunodeficiency Virus. The different marine organisms like sponges, molluscs, echinoderms, tunicates and bryozoans are being actively used or trialled for the preparation of useful pharmaceutical drugs. The scientists, researchers and pharmaceutical corporations of the world compete to discover new drugs from global marine reservoirs. The marine organisms are freely available in the marine ecosystems and lack of global legislations provide free hands to the biopirates to exploit the marine reservoirs and isolate different organisms from it. The enormous explorations in the marine reservoirs by the biopirates are causing damage to its ecosystems and its lifeforms. In this investigation, it was concluded that though scientific explorations should be allowed in the marine reservoirs for producing lifesaving drugs but overexploitation of marine reservoirs should be prohibited. It is suggested through this investigation that proper tracking of marine reservoirs is the present requirement to face the challenges being laid down by the biopirates.
Biopiracy of marine organisms: an emerging paradigm
Alves RRN. 2006. Use of marine turtles in zootherapy in northeast brazil. Marine Turtle Newsletter 112, 16-17. Page Available at http:// www.seaturtle.org/mtn/archives/mtn112/mtn112p16.shtml?nocount [Accessed date Jan 01, 2021]
Anis M, Ahmed S, Hasan MM. 2017. Algae as nutrition, medicine and cosmetic: The forgotten history, present status and future trends. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences 6(6), 1934-1959. http://dx.doi.org/10.20959/wjpp
Anjum K, Abbas SQ, Shah SA, Akhter N, Batool, S, Hassan SS. 2016. Marine sponges as a drug. Biomolecules & Therapeutics 24(5), 347-362. http://dx.doi.org/10.4062/biomolther.2016.559
Arnold C. 2020. Horsehoe crab blook is key to making a COVID-19 vaccine-but the ecosystem may suffer. Animals, Coronavirus Coverage. Page available at https://www.nationalgeographic.com/ animals/ 2020/07/covid-vaccine-needs-horseshoe-crab-blood/ [Accessed date 02, Jan 2021]
Bittel J. 2019. Where does the oxygen we breathe come from? The Washington Post. Page available at https://www.washingtonpost.com/lifestyle/kidspost/where-does-the-oxygen-we-breathe-come-from/ 2019/ 05/17/1e2bde6c-75ab-11e9-bd25-c989555 e77 66_story.html [Accessed date Dec. 31, 2020]
Briggs J. 2020. How much of the ocean is really protected in 2020. The PEW charitable trusts. Page available at https://www.pewtrusts.org/en/research-and-analysis/articles/2020/07/07/how-much-of-the-ocean-is-really-protected [Accessed date Dec. 31, 2020]
Choi CQ. 2006. Human, Sea slug brains share genes for Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. Scientific American. Page available at https://www.scientificamerican.com /article/human-sea-slug-brains-sha/ [Accessed date Jan 01, 2021]
Dellai A, Deghrigue M, Laroche-Clary A, Masour HB, Chouchane N, Robert J, Bouraoui A. 2012. Evaluation of antiproliferative and anti-inflammatory activities of methanol extract and its fractions from the Mediterranean sponge. Cancer Cell International 12, 18. https://doi.org/10.1186/1475-2867-12-18
Desbois AP, Mearns-Spragg A, Smith VJ. 2009. A fatty acid from the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum is antibacterial against diverse bacteria including multiresistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Marine Biotechnology 11(1), 45-52. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10126-008-9118-5
Desborough MJR, Keeling DM. 2017. The aspirin story – from willow to wonder drug. British Journal of Haematology 177(5), 674-683. https://doi.org/ 10.1111 /bjh.14520
Dinmore G. 2016. Oceans given boost as nations agree to protect a third worldwide. NewScientist. Page available at https://www.newscientist.com /article/2105530-oceans-given-boost-as-nations-agree -to-protect-a-third-worldwide/ [Accessed date Dec. 31, 2020]
Donia M, Hamann MT. 2003. Marine natural products and their potential applications as anti-infective agents. The Lancet Infectious Diseases 3(6), 338-348.
Fu XM, Zhang MQ, Shao CL, Li GQ, Bai H, Dai GL, Chen QW, Kong W, Fu, XJ, Wang CY. 2016. Chinese marine materia medica resources: Status and potential. Marine Drugs 14(13), 46.
GEN. 2019. Antimicrobial, anticancer help may come from kelp. Drug Discovery. Page available at https://www.genengnews.com/news/antimicrobial-anticancer-help-may-come-from-kelp/[Accessed date Jan 02, 2021]
Greenfieldboyce N. 2020. The 1st gene-altered squid has thrilled biologists. NPR. Treatments. Page available at https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2020 /07/30/895733739/the-first-gene-altered-squid-has-thrilled-biologists [Accessed date Jan 02, 2021]
Ikenson B. 2012. Patents: Ingenious inventions how they work and how they came to be. United States: Running Press, 42.
Indraningrat AAG, Smidt H, Sipkema D. 2016. Bioprospecting sponge-associated microbes for antimicrobial compounds. Marine Drugs 14(5), 87 https://doi.org/10.3390/md14050087
Janik E. 2014. Electric belts and other electrifying health aides. Irregular Medicine. Page available at https://erikajanik.com/tag/irregular-medicine/ [Accessed date Dec. 31, 2020]
Kahla-Nakbi AB, Haouas N, Ouaer AE, Guerbej H, Mustapha KB, Babba H. 2010. Screening of antileishmanial activity from marine sponge extracts collected off the tunisian coast. Parasitology Research 106, 1281-1286.
Kataona S. 2015. Marine animals in human medicine: Will a sponge save your life? Page available at http://www.oceanhealthindex.org/news/ Marine _Animals _Human_Medicine [Accessed date Jan 01, 2021].
Khalilieh HS, Boulos A. 2006. A glimpse on the uses of seaweeds in islamic science and daily life during the classical period. Arabic Sciences and Philosophy 16. 91-101.
Malve H. 2016. Exploring the ocean for new drug developments: Marine pharmacology. Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences 8(2), 83-91. https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-7406.171700
Mans DRA. 2016. Exploring the global animal biodiversity in the search for new drugs-marine invertebrates. Journal of Translational Science 2(3), 170-179.
Mayer AMS, Glaser KB, Cuevas C, Jacobs RS, Kem W, Little RD, Mclntosh JM, Newman DJ, Potts BC, Shuster DE. 2010. The odyssey of marine pharmaceutical: A current pipeline perspective. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences 31, 255-265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tips.2010.02.005
Munn C. 2003.Marine microbiology: Ecology & applications. United Kingdom: Taylor & Francis, 8
Narchi NE. 2015. Price LL. Ethnobiology of coral and coral reefs. Switzerland: Springer, 87.
National Center for Biotechnology Information. 2021. PubChem compound summary for CID 108150, trabectedin. Page available at https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Trabectedin [Accessed date Jan 02, 2021].
National Research Council. 1999. From monsoons to microbes: Understanding the ocean’s role in human health. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press, https://doi.org/10.17226/6368
Newman T. 2019. Why scientist are searching the ocean for new drugs. Medical News Today. Page available at https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/ articles /325384 [Accessed date Dec. 31, 2020]
Ninawe AS, Indulkar ST. 2014. Review patenting applications in marine science & biotechnology. Journal of Aquaculture 22, 7-20.
Nizamoglu C. 2015. Ibn Sina’s the canon of medicine. Page available at https://muslimheritage. com /ibn-sinas-the-canon-of-medicine/ [Accessed date Jan 01, 2021]
NSF. 2006. Decoded sea urchin genome shows surprising relationship to humans. National Science Foundation. News Release 06-162. Page available at https://www.nsf.gov/news/news_summ.jsp?cntn_id=108174#thumb_imgs [Accessed date Jan 01, 2021]
Ogura A, Ikeo K, Gojobori T. 2004. Comparative analysis of gene expression for convergent evolution of camera eye between octopus and human. Genome Research 14(8), 1555-1561. http://www.genome.org /cgi/doi/10.1101/gr.2268104
Olivera BM, Imperial JS, Concepcion GP. 2013. Snail peptides, In: Kastin AJ Ed. Handbook of Biologically Active Peptides, 2nd Ed. Boston, United States: Academic Press 437-450.
Palanisamy SK, Rajendran NM, Marino A. 2017. Natural products diversity of marine Ascidians (Tunicates; Ascidiacea) and successful drugs in clinical development. Natural Products and Bioprospecting 7(1), 1-111.
Pan SY, Litscher G, Gao SH, Zhou SF, Yu ZL, Chen HQ, Zhang SF, Tang MK, Sun JN, Ko KM. 2014. Historical perspective of traditional indigenous medical practices: the current renaissance and conservation of herbal resources. Evidenced Based Complementary and Alternative Med: eCAM, 525340. https://doi.org/10.1155/2014/525340
Patrzykat A. 2003. Gone gene fishing: How to catch novel marine antimicrobials. Trends in Biotechnology 21(8), 362-369.
Piel J, Rust M. 2020. Metagenome mining. In: Liu H-W and Begley T, Ed. Comprehensive Natural Products Chemistry and Biology.Vol.III. Oxford, UK: Elsevier p. 50-89.
Pinto MF, Mourão JS, Alves RRN. 2015. Use of ichthyofauna by artisanal fishermen at two protected areas along the coast of Northeast Brazil. Journal of Ethnobiology and ethnomedicine 11, 20.
Pudney A, Gandini C, Economou CK, Smith R, Goddard P, Napier JA, Spicer A, Sayanova O. 2019. Multifunctionalizing the marine diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum for sustainable co-production of omega-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids and recombinate phytase. Scientific Reports 9, 11444. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-
Rees V. 2020. Cervical cancer cell-killing molecule manzamine A found in Indonesian sponge. News. Drug Target Review. Page available at https://www. drugtargetreview.com/news/59401/cervical-cancer-cell-killing-molecule-manzamine-a-found-in-indonesian-sponge/ [Accessed date Jan 02, 2021.]
Reuchlin-Hugenholtz E, McKenzie E. 2015. Marine protected areas: Smart investments in ocean health. WWF, Gland, Switzerland. Page available at http://assets.worldwildlife.org/publications/801/files/original/Smart_Investments_in_Ocean_Health.pdf [Accessed date Dec. 31, 2020]
Safavi-Hemami H, Brogan SE, Olivera BM. 2019. Pain therapeutics from cone snail venoms: From ziconotide to novel non-opioid pathways. Journal of Proteomics 190, 12-20.
Shetty N, Gupta S. 2014. Eribulin drug review. South Asian Journal of Cancer 3(1), 57-59.
Silber J, Kramer A, Labes A, Tasdemir D. 2016. From discovery to production: Biotechnology of marine fungi for the production of new antibiotics. Marine Drugs 14(17), 137.
Suganthy N, Pandian SK, Devi K. 2010. Neuroprotective effect of seaweeds inhabiting South Indian coastal area (Hare Island, Gulf of Mannar Marine Biosphere Reserve): Cholinesterase inhibitory effect of Hypnea valentiae and Ulva reticulata. Neuroscience Letters 468, 216-219.
Trzoss L, Fukuda T, Costa-Lotufo LV, Jimenez P, La Clair JJ, Fenical W. 2014. Seriniquinone, a selective anticancer agent, induces cell death by autophagocytosis, targeting the cancer-protective protein dermcidin. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 111(41), 14687-14692.
United Nations. 2017. The ocean conference. United Nations, New York, 5-9 June 2017. Page available at https://www.un.org/sustainable develop ment/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/Ocean-fact-sheet -package.pdf [Accessed date Dec. 31, 2020]
Voultsiadou E. 2010. Therapeutic properties and uses of marine invertebrates in the ancient Greek world and early Byzantium. Journal of Ethnopharmacology 130(2), 237-247.
Biopiracy of marine organisms: an emerging paradigm.
J. Bio. Env. Sci. 18(6), 8-17, June 2021.
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)