J. Bio. Env. Sci.14(6), 103-113, June 2019
In this study, district Mansehra, Pakistan was chosen as the study area. The main objectives of this research are to assess the extent and the changes in the rate of deforestation in Mansehra since past 20 years. It also examine the impacts of deforestation on the Climate by establishing and mapping the magnitude and rates of land cover changes that had occurred in the study area. Landsat satellite images were taken as secondary data and they were foremost for the classiﬁcation process. Remote sensing data together with GIS techniques have made it conceivable to display and oversee remotely detected information in various scales. The images taken for classification are Landsat 5 TM for the year 1998 and 2008 and from Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS TM for the year 2017. Climatic data from 1988 to 2017 was collected from Pakistan Meteorological Department (PMD) of Mansehra District. The Forest Cover was 14% (601 Sq. Km) in 1998, 15% (668 Sq. Km) in 2008 and 5% (194 Sq. Km) in 2017. Taking everything together, anyway the results exhibit that some land cover types experienced extending rates and sizes of changes however in the others the inverse is legitimate, results revealed that the size and the rates of land cover changes for forest areas experienced an exceptional fluctuations in these 20 years. Maximum temperature of Mansehra increased at an alarming rate from 25.82°C in 1988 and 24.8°C in 1998 to 25.667°C in 2008 and 27.304°C in 2016 and 26.739°C in the year 2017. Mean minimum temperature showed fluctuation of 1° during these 30 years. In some years mean minimum temperature showed decrease from 12° to 11° and this change is not confined to a specific year. The rainfall was 5.129mm in 1988 and then rainfall increased from 3.6 mm in the year 1998 when there was 14% forest Cover to 4.8mm in 2008 when there was 15% Forest Cover but declined to 2.9mm in the year 2017 when there was only 5% forest left in Mansehra.
Ross W. Gorte & Pervaze Sheikh A. 2010. “Deforestation and Climate Change” Congressional Research Service.
Ghana, Peter Dok Tenden. 2013. “The Causes of and Impacts from Deforestation on Local Level Sustainable Forest Management in Ghana: a survey of Dwease and Praaso communities in the Ashanti region” Master’s theses in Development Management University of Agder 2013.
Catrin Robertson. 2011. ” Forest Transition or just Deforestation.?” Evidence from Brazil, A Masster Thesis.
Philip, Fearnside M. 1999. ” Global Warming and Tropical Land Use Change: GHG Emissions from Biomass Burning, Decomposition and Soils in Forest Conversion, Shifting Cultivation and Secondary Vegetation” Research Gate 46(1), 115-158.
Longobardi P, Montenegro A, Beltrami H, Eby M. 2016. “Deforestation Induced Climate Change: Effects of Spatial Scale.” PLoS ONE 11(4), e0153357.
Max Planck. 2002. “Maximum Impacts of Future Reforestation and Deforestation on Atmospheric CO2.” Global Change Biology 8(11), 1047-1052.
Philip Fearnside M. 1997. “Greenhouse Gases from Deforestation in Brazilian Amazonia: Net Committed Emissions” 35(3), 321-360.
Lauren Bennett. 2017. “Deforestation and Climate Change.” Climate Institute.
Faisal Mueen, Khuram Shzad, Sawaid Abbas, Hamad Gillan And Birendra Bajracharya. 2016. “Mapping Deforestation and Forest Degradation Patters in Western Himalaya Pakistan” 8(5), 385.
Arshad Ali, Somana Riaz. 2015. ” Deforestation and its Impact on Climate Change, An Overview of Pakistan” 21(1),51-60.
Muhammad Tariq. 2015. “An Overview of Deforestation Causes and its Environmental Hazards in KPK.” Journal of Natural Sciences Research 5(1), 2225-092.
DeJong BHJ, Hellier A, Castillo-Santiago MA, Tipper R. 2014. “Application of the ‘CLIMAFOR’ Approached to Estimate Base Line Carbon Emissions of a Forest Conservation Project in the SelvaLacandonaChiapas, Mexico” 10(2), 265-2781.
Carlos Nobre, Piers Sellers A, Jagadish Shukla J. 1991″ Amazonian Deforestation and Regional Climate Change”. Journal of Climate 4(10).
Karen Brien L.O. 2000. ” Up Scaling Tropical Deforestation: Implications for Climate Change”. Climatic Change 44(3), 311-329.
Bernard Tinker P, John Ingram S, Sten Struwe I. 1996. “Effects of Slash-&Burn Agriculture and Deforestation on Climate Change”. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment 58(1), 13-22.
Polcher J, Laval K. 1993. ” The Impact of African and Amazonian Deforestation on Tropical Climate”. Journal of Hydrology 155(3,4), 389-405.
David Werth and Roni Avissar. 2002 “The Local and Global Effects of Amazon Deforestation”. Journal of Geographic Research Atmosphere 107(20), 55-1,55-8.
Bala K, Caldiera M, Wickett TJ, Phillips D, Lobell B, Delire C, Mirin A. 2007. “Combined Climate and Carbon-Cycle Effects on Large Scale Deforestation”. PNAS 104(16), 6550-6555.
John Polcher. 1993. “The Statistical Study of the Impacts of Deforestation on Climate Using the LMD-GCM”. Climate Dynamics 10(4,5), 205-219.
Khalid Ahmad, Mohammad Shahbaz, AhmerQasim, Weilong. 2015. “The Linkages between Deforestation, Energy and Growth for Environmental Degradation”. Ecological Indicators. 49, 95-103.