Local communities’ perception and willingness on sustainable management of a natural threatened resource: case study of Baillonella toxisperma Pierre in Eastern Cameroon

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/05/2015
Views (176) Download (4)

Local communities’ perception and willingness on sustainable management of a natural threatened resource: case study of Baillonella toxisperma Pierre in Eastern Cameroon

Makueti JT, Tchoundjeu Z, Tsobeng A, Numbisi F, Tsafack S
J. Bio. Env. Sci.6( 5), 74-92, May 2015.
Certificate: JBES 2015 [Generate Certificate]


Baillonella toxisperma is a multipurpose tree that provides non-timber forest products. In particular, fruit kernels can be transformed into buffer for cooking and cosmetics and its bark is used to cure many ailments in local communities. Unfortunately, natural stands of B. toxisperma are seriously threatened in Cameroon. The objectives of the study were to document uses of the targeted species, its management patterns and assess its population structure. Ethnobotanical and quantitative ecological methods were used. The results showed that the species was found to be multipurpose and produced several products and services. The most mentioned services were conservation of foodstuffs and medicine. Community responses indicated that the species became rare and there were no strategies developed to preserve it. The quantitative inventory supported this community view: the species had a low density (0.02 individual/ha) and a weak size class distribution. The species appeared to be threatened by illegal logging, overexploitation and poor attitude to its conservation. Due to the high value of the species, respondents claimed that they were interested in conserving it but they lacked appropriate propagation techniques, materials and skills. Thus, the sensitization and the domestication of the species should urgently be considered in the farmer environment with strong sound of policy.


Adjanohoun E, Aboubakar N, Dramane K, Ebot ME, Ekpere JA, Enow-Orock EG, Focho D, Gbile ZO, Kamany A, Kamsu Kom J, Keita A, Mbenkum T, Mbi CN, Mbiele AL, Mbome IL, Mubiru NK, Nancy WL, Nkongmeneck A, Sabatie B, Sorowora A, Tamze A, Wirmum CK. 1996. Contribution to ethnobotanical and floristic studies in Cameroon. CSTR/OUA, pp.641.

Alemagi D, Kozak RA. 2010. Illegal logging in Cameroon: Causes and the path forward. Forest Policy and Economics 12(8), 554- 561.

Asaah EK, Tchoundjeu Z, Leakey RRB, Takousting B, Njong J, Edang I. 2011. Trees, agroforestry and multifunctional agriculture in Cameroon. International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability 9, 110- 119.

Assembe-Mvondo SM. 2009. State failure and governance in vulnerable states: An assessment of forest law compliance and enforcement in Cameroon. Africa Today 58(3), 85- 102.

Association Cœur de Forêt. 2009. Rapport d‟Activités. Participer à un modèle économique qui protège la forêt et ses habitants, pp.34. [Internal activities report. Participate in an economic model that protects the forest and its inhabitants, pp.34].

Assogbadjo AE, Kakai RG, Adjallala FH, Azihou AF, Vodouhe GF, Kyndt T, Codjia JTC. 2009. Ethnic differences in use value and use patterns of the threatened multipurpose scrambling shrub (Caesalpinia bonduc L.) in Benin. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 5(9), 1549- 1557.

Bationo BA, Ouedraogo SJ, Guinko S. 2001. Longévité des grains et contraintes à la survie des plantules d’Afzelia africana Sm. dans une svane boisée du Burkina Faso. Annals for Forest Science 58(1), 56- 75.

Betti JL. 2002. Usages traditionnels des plantes médicinales et traitement des maux de dos dans la Reserve de Biosphère du Dja, Cameroun. In: Guerci A and Consigliere S, ed. Proceedings of the second international congress on anthropology, history of health and diseases : Living and « Curing » old age in the world/old age in the world, Genoa/Italy 3, 117-154.

Betti JL, Lejoly J. 2010. Contribution à la connaissance des plantes médicinales de la Réserve de Biosphère du Dja au Cameroun: plantes utilisées dans le traitement des maux de dos. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Sciences 4(1), 193- 200

Betti JL, Yongo OD, Obiang MD, Iponga MD, Ngoye A. 2013. An ethnobotanical and floristical study of medicinal plants among the Baka pygmies in the periphery of the Ipassa- Biosphere Reserve, Gabon. European Journal of Medicinal Plants 3(2), 174-205.

Boffa JM. 2000. Les parcs agroforestiers en Afrique Subsaharienne. Cahier FAO, guide de conservation n˚34, FAO, Rome, pp. 251.

Cerutti PO, Tacconi L. 2006. Forests, illegality, and livelihoods in Cameroon. Working Paper No.35. Bogor: CIFOR: 28.

Chia M. 2004. Traditional forest-related knowledge as an instrument in sustainable forest management: a case study of the Kilum mountain forest project in Cameroon. FORAFRI Seminar, Libreville.

Clark LE, Sunderland TCH. 2004. The key non timber forest products of Central Africa: State of the knowledge. Technical Paper No.122, 199p, USAID.

Cocks M. 2006. Biocultural diversity: Moving beyond the realm of „indigenous‟ and „local‟ people. Human Ecology 34(2), 185- 200.

Cox M, Arnold G, Tomas SV. 2010. A review of design principles for community-based natural resource management. Ecology and Society 15(4), 38.

Cunningham AB, Shanley P, Laird SA. 2008. Health, habitats and medicinal plants use, pp 35-62. In: Colfer CJP (2008). Human health and forests: A global overview of issues, practices and policy. Earthscan, London

Dawson IK, Lengkeek A, Weber JC. 2009. Managing genetic variation in tropical trees: linking knowledge with action in agroforestry ecosystems for improved conservation and enhanced livelihoods. Biodiversity and Conservation 18, 969- 986.

Debraux L. 1998. L‟aménagement des forêts tropicales fondées sur la gestion des populations d‟arbres: l‟exemple du Moabi (Baillonella toxisperma Pierre) dans la forêt du Dja, Cameroun. Thèse de Doctorat, Faculté Universitaire des Sciences Agronomiques de Gembloux, Belgique pp.285.

Degrande A, Tadjio P, Takoutsing B, Asaah E, Tsobeng A, Tchoundjeu Z. 2013. Getting trees into  framers‟  fields:  Success  of  rural  nurseries  in distributing high quality planting materials in Cameroon. Small-Scale Forestry 12(3), 403- 422.

Delvaux C, Sinsin B, Van Damme P. 2010. Impact of season, stem diameter and intensity of debarking on survival and bark re-growth pattern of medicinal tree species, Benin, West Africa. Biological Conservation 143, 2664- 2671.

De Wasseige C, de Marcken P, Bayol N, Hiol Hiol F, Mayaux P, Deslée B, Nasi R, Billand A, Defourny P, Eba’a Atyi R. 2012. The forests of the Congo Basin – State of the forests 2010. Luxembourg: Publications Office of the European Union.

Dkamela GP. 2001. Les institutions communa-utaires de gestion des produits forestiers non ligneux dans les villages périphériques de la Réserve de Biosphère du Dja. Tropenbos-Cameroun, Document 7, pp.88.

Doucet JL, Kouadio YL. 2007.  Le  moabi,  une espèce “phare” de l‟exploitation forestière en Afrique Centrale. Parcs et Réserves 62(2), 25- 31.

Feyssa DH, Njoka JT, Asfaw Z, Nyangito MM. 2012. Uses and management of Ximenia americana, Olacaceae in semi-arid east Shewa, Ethiopia. Pakistan Journal of Botany 44(4), 1177- 1184.

Fotso  N.  1995.  Contribution  à  l‟étude  de  l‟huile provenant de la graine oléagineuse moabi Baillonella toxisperma. Mémoire de fin d‟études, FUSAG, pp.75.

Fotso, Sanonne, Omokolo ND, Dongfagsiteli TN. 2008.  Comparaison  des  premières  étapes  de l‟embryogenèse      somatique chez Baillonella toxisperma et Vitellaria paradoxa (Sapotacées). Base 2(12), 131- 138.

Guedje NM, Lejoly J, Nkongmeneck BA, Jonkers WBJ. 2003. Population dynamics of Garcinia lucida (Clusiaceae) in Cameroonian Atlantic forests. Forest Ecology and. Management 177, 231-241.

Guilaumet JL, Chevillote H, Doumengue C, Valton C, Fauvet N, Achoudong G. 2010. Atlas des essences commercialisées d‟Afrique tropicale humide: l‟exemple du Cameroun. In: van der Burgt X, van der Maesen J & Onana JM, ed. Systematics and Conservation of African plants, Proceedings of the 18th AETFAT Congress, Yaoundé Cameroon. Royal Botanic, Garden, Kew 759- 770.

Hall P, Bawa K. 1993. Methods to assess the impact of extraction of non-timber tropical forest products on plant population. Economic botany 47(3), 234-247.

Hamawa Y, Mapongmestem PM, Nkongmeneck BA, Dongock DN. 2010. Altitudinal distribution of Vepris heterophylla (Engl.) R. Lrt. (Rutaceae): a multifunctional plant of soudano-sahelian zone. International Journal of Botany 6(3), 243-250.

Hewitt J. 2007. An assessment of tree species which warrant listing in CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered species of Wild Fauna and Flora). Milieudefensie (Friends of the Earth, Netherlands), pp.30.

Ingram V. 2010. La problématique des PFNL en Afrique Centrale. Perspectives d‟appui au plan de convergence de la COMIFAC. Atelier Sous Régional sur « L‟harmonisation des Revues Nationales sur les Produits Forestiers Non Ligneux (PFNL) en Afrique Centrale ». CIFOR. Douala, Cameroun, Project ACP FORENET: 15.

IUCN-World Conservation Union/WCPA-World Commission on Protected Areas/WWF-World Wide Fund for Nature. 2002. Principles and guideline on protected areas and indigenous /traditional peoples.

IUCN. 2012. ‘IUCN Red list of threatened species’. Version 2012. Retrieved 23 November 2012, from www.iucnredlist.org.

Jiofack T, Fokunang C, Guedje N, Kemeuze V, Fongnzossie E, Nkongmeneck BA, Mapong-metsem PM, Tsabang N. 2010. Ethnobotanical uses of medicinal plants of two ethnoecological regions of Cameroon. International Journal of Medicine and Medical Sciences 2(3), 60- 79.

Keay RWL. 1989. Trees of Nigeria. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

Kouadio YL, Doucet JL. 2009. Etude du comportement de Baillonella toxisperma Pierre (moabi) dans les trouées d‟abattage enrichies. Biotechnology, Agronomy, Science and Environment 13(2), 317- 324.

Laird SA, Awung GL, Lysinge RJ, Ndive LE. 2011. The interweave of people and place: biocultural diversity in migrant and indigenous livelihoods around Mont Cameroon. International Forestry Review 13(3), 275-293.

Lawas MCM. 1997. The resource user’s knowledge, the neglected input in land resource management International Institute for Aerospace Survey and Earth Sciences (ITC), Enschede, The Netherlands, pp.6-7.

Leakey RRB, van Damme P. 2014. The role of domestication in green market product value chain development. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods, 23(1-2), 116-126.

Mapongmestem PM, Nkongmeneck BA, Rongouni G, Dongock DN, Dongmo B. 2011. Impact des systèmes d‟utilisation des terres sur la conservation de Vitellaria paradoxa Gaertn. F. (Sapotaceae) dans la région des savanes soudano-guinéennes. International Journal of Environne-mental Studies 68(6), 851- 872.

Mbah JA, Ndikum G, Zofou D, Ngemenya MN, Efange SMN. 2011. Antiplasmodial triterpenes from the stem bark of Baillonella toxisperma. Isesco Journal of Science and Technology 7, 84- 87.

Mbile P, Pa’Ah P, Popoola L, Tchoundjeu Z, Nchoutmboube J, Ndzomo AG. 2007. Community-based stock assessment and monitoring systems (CB-SAMS) for non-wood forest products in Community Forests in Cameroon: A methodological guide. In: Ed. Jim Chamberlain. Proceedings of XII IUFRO World Forestry Congress, Research Group 5.11. Forests in balance- linking tradition and technology: non-timber forest products tradition and technologies, August 2005, Brisbane.

Mengue FD. 2012. Qualité des eaux de puits et de forage du secteur de Kette (Est-Cameroun). Mémoire de DIPES II en Sciences Biologiques, Ecole Normale Supérieure, Université de Yaoundé I pp.59.

Minang PA, van Noordwijk M, Freeman OE, Mbow C, de Leeuw J, Catacutan D. 2015. Climate-smart landscapes: multifunctionality in practice. Nairobi, Kenya: World Agroforestry Centre (ICRAF).

Mpeck ML. 2006. Population structure and natural regeneration of Moabi in a Community Forest in the periphery of the Dja Faunal Reserve in Eastern Cameroon. In: Mbile P, Ndzomo AG, Degrande A, Mpeck ML, Tchoundjeu Z, Ngo-Momha C, Pa‟ah P. “Home-grown plus”: Local knowledge, Livelihoods, Policies and Science. Proceedings of the Regional Workshop on Agroforestry in the DJA Landscape, Lomie 21-22 June 2006.

Ndzomo AG. 2012. Concilier droits des pygmées et gestion durable de la biodiversité. In: ECOFAC Report, 17- 19.

Nelson J, Hossack L. 2003. Indigenous peoples and protected areas in Africa: from principles to practice. Forest Peoples Programme: Moreton-in-Marsh.

Ngo-Mpeck ML, Atangana A. 2007. Rooting of leafy stem cuttings of Baillonella toxisperma. Forestry Science 53(5), 571- 579.

Ngoufo R, Njoumeni N, Parren M. 2012. Etat des lieux de la situation économique, écologique et sociale actuelle de l‟espace Camerounais du TRIDOM. Tropenbos International-Programme du Bassin du Congo, Wageningen, Pays-Bas, pp.145.

Ngueguim JR, Dondjang JP, Onana J, Tata Ijang P, Zapfack L, Noiha Noumi V, Kengne OC, Solefack MC. 2011. Moabi (Baillonella toxisperma Pierre) : arbre à usage multiple de forêt dense humide du Cameroun. International Journal of Biological and Chemistry Science 596, 2395- 2406.

N’Guessan K, Kadja B, Zirihi GN, Traore D, Ake-Assi L. 2009. Screening phytochimique de quelques plantes médicinales ivoiriennes utilisées en pays Krobou (Agboville, Côte-d‟Ivoire). Sciences & Nature 6(1), 1- 15.

Ntenwu TNM. 2000. The role of community institutions in the management of non-timber forest products in the Bipindi-Akom II region of South Cameroon. Internal Report CARPE, pp.51.

Offem JO. 1990. Chemical composition of the seeds of the timber tree, Mimusops djave (B. toxisperma), from south eastern Nigeria. Tropical Science 30, 207-10.

Pampou TH, Koudogbo B, Pouet Y, Casadevall E. 1992. Composition en acides gras et en triglycérides des grains comestibles de cinq arbres de la forêt gabonaise. Revue Française des Corps Gras 5/6, 147- 148.

Phelps J, Carrasco LR, Webb EL Koh LP, Pascual U. 2013. Agricultural intensification escalates future conservation costs. Proceeding of the National Academy of Sciences.

Plenderleith K, Brown N. 2004. Moabi (Baillonella toxisperma). In Clark LE, Sunderland TCH, Ed. The key non-timber forest products of Central Africa: State of the knowledge. SD Publications, Technical Paper No.122. USAID.

Rougeron M. 2012. Tropical forests: the point of step and new challenges in Central Africa. WWW.pallisco-cifm.com. Retrieved 17 June 2013.

Schneemann J. 1995. Exploitation of Moabi in the humid dense forest of Cameroon: Harmonization and improvement of two conflicting ways of exploitation of the same resource. Bos. News 31/14(2), 20- 32.

Seixas CS. 2010. Community-based enterprises: the significance of partnerships and institutional linkages. International Journal of the Commons 4(1), 183- 212.

Tabuti JRS, Mugula BB. 2007. The ethnobotany and ecology status of Albizia coriaria Welw.ex Oliv. in Budondo Sub-country, eastern Uganda. African Journal of Ecology 45(Supplement 3), 126- 129.

Takoutsing B, Tchoundjeu Z, Degrande A, Asaah E, Gyau A, Nkeumoe F, Tsobeng A. 2013. Assessing the quality of seedlings in small-scale nurseries in the highlands of Cameroon: the use of growth characteristics and quality thresholds as indicators. Small-Scale Forestry 12 (1), 1- 15.

Takoutsing B, Tchoundjeu Z, Degrande A, Asaah E, Tsobeng A. 2014. Scaling-up sustainable land management Practices through the concept of the Rural Resource Centre: Reconciling farmers‟ interests with research agendas. Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension 1- 21.

Tasse BD. 2007. Impact écologique de l‟exploitation de l‟écorce de Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalkman dans la région du mont Cameroun: cas de la zone de Bokwango-Mapanja. Mémoire de fin d‟études : Faculté d‟agronomie et des Sciences Agricoles. Université de Dschang, Cameroun pp.95.

Tchoundjeu Z, Asaah EK, Anegbeh P, Degrande A, Mbile P, Facheux C, Tsobeng A, Atangana AR, Ngo-Mpeck ML, Simons AJ. 2006. Putting participatory domestication into practice in West and Central Africa. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods 16, 53- 69.

Tchoundjeu Z, Atangana A, Assah E, Tsobeng A, Facheux C, Foundjem D, Mbosso C, Degrande A, Sado T, Kanmegne J, Mbile P, Tabuna H, Anegbeh P, Useni M. 2008. Domestication, Utilization and Marketing of Indigenous Fruit trees in West and Central Africa. Indigenous Fruit Trees in the Tropics: Domestication, Utilization and Commercialization, ed. Akinnifesi et al. pp.18.

Tchoundjeu Z, Degrande A, Leakey RRB, Ninimo G, Kemajou E, Asaah E, Facheux C, Mbile P, Mbosso C, Sado T, Tsobeng A. 2010. Impacts of participatory tree domestication on framers livelihoods in West and Central Africa. Forests, Trees and Livelihoods 19, 217- 234.

Tchoumba B. 2005. Peuples indigènes et tribaux et stratégie de réduction de la pauvreté au Cameroun. Organisation Internationale du Travail, Genève, Suisse, pp.82.

Tsafack S, Degrande A, Franzel S, Simpson B. 2014. Farmer-to-farmer extension in Cameroon: a survey of extension organizations. ICRAF Working Paper No.182. Nairobi, World Agroforestry Centre pp. 53.

UNEP-WCMC. 2006. Tree conservation information service. Available online at www.unep-wcmc.org/ trees/trade/bai_tox.htm; last assessed March 24, 2014.

Vermeulen C, Schippers C, Julve C, Mezogue NFD, Bracke C, Doucet JL. 2009. Enjeux méthodologiques autour des produits forestiers non ligneux dans le cadre de la certification en Afrique centrale. Bois et Forêts des Tropiques 300(2), 69-78.

Vvien J, Faure JJ. 1996. Fruitiers sauvages d‟Afrique (espèces du Cameroun). Nguila-Kerou, Clohars Carnoet, France, pp.416.

White F. 1983. The vegetation of Africa, a descriptive memoire to accompany the UNESCO/AETFAT/UNSO vegetation map of Africa. UNESCO Natural Resources Research 20, 1- 35.

Yakeu DSE. 2012. Local knowledge and socio-economic values of Picralima nitida ((Stapf) th. & H. Durand) in the humid forest zone of Cameroon. Master Thesis, Ghent University, Belgium pp.94.

Yinyang J, Mpondo ME, Tchatat M, Ndib RC, Mvogo OPB, Dibong SD. 2014. Les plantes à alcaloïdes utilisées par les populations de la ville de Douala (Cameroun). Journal of Applied Sciences 78, 6600- 6619.

Zapfack L, Engwald S, Sonke B, Achoundong G, Madong BA. 2002. The impact of land use conversion on plant biodiversity in the forest zone of Cameroon. Biodiversity and Conservation 11, 2947-2061.

Zirihi GN, Datte JY, Kra-Adou KM, Grellier P. 2007. Phytochemical and pharmacological studies of the alcoholic extract (MFA) of Fagara macrophylla (Oliv.) Engl. (Rutaceae): the chemical structure of the active compound inducing antipaludic activity. Journal of Chinese Clinical Medicine 2, 205- 210.