Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Lung morbidity of traffic wardens exposed to chronic vehicular pollution in Lahore, Pakistan

Research Paper | May 1, 2019

| Download 7

SY Shelly, HJ Malik, Z Ali, F Manzoor, ZA Nasir

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.14( 5), 294-304, May 2019

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/14.5.294-304


IJB 2019 [Generate Certificate]


Lahore being a highly populated metropolitan city was selected to monitor the lung capacity of traffic wardens. Vehicular pollution was monitored throughout Lahore at the main vehicular influx and outflow sites in both winters and summers for NO2, CO, PM2.5 and PM10 along with temperature and humidity.Spirometery was conducted on 500 subjects by MDX Spiro Tron. The temperature, humidity, CO and NO2 dioxide levels vary with the change in season whereas the values of PM2.5 and PM10 correlate with each other positively and negatively among the towns and depict dangerously high levels of both the PM concentrations.Moderate effect on lung capacity in 25% of the field duty officersand severe effect in 2.8% of the field duty officers (10 years) followed by 6.8% of the wardens (8 years) was observed. Thus, saying that chronic exposure of vehicular emissions leads to lower lung capacities and higher disease symptoms.


Copyright © 2019
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Lung morbidity of traffic wardens exposed to chronic vehicular pollution in Lahore, Pakistan

Adam M, Schikowski T, Carsin AE, Cai Y, Jacquemin B, Sanchez M, Probst-Hensch N. 2015. Adult lung function and long-term air pollution exposure. ESCAPE: A multicentre cohort study and meta-analysis. European Respiratory Journal. https://doi.org/10.1183/09031936.00130014

Begum BA, Biswas SK, Hopke PK. 2006. Temporal variations and spatial distribution of ambient PM2.2 and PM10 concentrations in Dhaka, Bangladesh. Science of The Total Environment, 358(1–3), 36–45. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2005.05.031

Bellamy D. 2005. Spirometry in practice. Brain Research 1414, 77–84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2011.07.049

Brunekreef B, Beelen R, Hoek G, Schouten L, Bausch-Goldbohm S, Fischer P, Van den Brandt P. 2009. Effects of long-term exposure to traffic-related air pollution on respiratory and cardiovascular mortality in the Netherlands: the NLCS-AIR study. Research Report (Health Effects Institute) (139), 73-89.

Chan CK, Yao X. 2008. Air pollution in mega cities in China. Atmospheric Environment, 42(1), 1–42. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ATMOSENV.2007.09.003

Cheng Y, Kan H. 2012. Effect of the interaction between outdoor air pollution and extreme temperature on daily mortality in Shanghai, China. Journal of Epidemiology 22(1), 28–36. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in adults Guidance and guidelines | NICE. (n.d.). Retrieved. https://doi.org/10.2188/JEA.JE20110049.

Colbeck I, Nasir ZA, Ali Z. 2010. The state of ambient air quality in Pakistan-a review. Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 17(1), 49–63. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-009-0217-2

Dallafior K. 2012. Excessive sitting can be hazardous to employees’ health – A Healthier Michigan. Retrieved March 7, 2018, from https://www.ahealthiermichigan.org/2012/10/24/excessive-sitting-can-be-hazardous-to-employees-health/

Downs SH, Schindler C, Liu LJS, Keidel D, Bayer-Oglesby L, Brutsche MH. 2007. Reduced Exposure to PM 10 and Attenuated Age-Related Decline in Lung Function. New England Journal of Medicine 357(23), 2338–2347. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa073625

EPA. 2014. Nitrogen Dioxide 3,  p 2014. Retrieved from http://www.epa.gov/airquality/nitrogenoxides/

Forbes LJL, Kapetanakis V, Rudnicka AR, Cook DG, Bush T, Stedman JR, Anderson HR. 2009. Chronic exposure to outdoor air pollution and lung function in adults. Thorax 64(8),  657–663. https://doi.org/10.1136/thx.2008.109389

Goldstein IF. 1972. Interaction of Air Pollution and Weather in Their Effects on Health. HSMHA Health Reports 87(1), 50. https://doi.org/10.2307/4594426

GOP. 2016. Economic Survey of Pakistan. South Asia, (iv), 1–40. https://doi.org/10.1525/as.1950.19.8.01p0590m

GOP. 2011. Traffic Summary-2011, Provincial and District Roads, Governement of the Punjab. Lahore.

Hoek G, Brunekreef B, Goldbohm S, Fischer P, Van den Brandt PA. 2002. Association between mortality and indicators of traffic-related air pollution in the Netherlands: a cohort study. The Lancet, 360(9341), 1203–1209. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(02)11280-3

Jain S, Khare M. 2007. Urban air quality in mega cities: A case study of Delhi City using vulnerability analysis. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 136(1–3), 257–265. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10661-007-9681-7

Kan H. 2011. Climate Change and Human Health in China. Environmental Health Perspectives 119(2), a60–a61. https://doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1003354

Kan, H., Chen R, Tong S. 2012. Ambient air pollution, climate change, and population health in China. Environment International 42, 10–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2011.03.003

Kan H, Heiss G, Rose KM, Whitsel E, Lurmann F, London SJ. 2007. Traffic exposure and lung function in adults: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities study. Thorax 62(10), 873–879. https://doi.org/10.1136/thx.2006.073015

Kim BM, Lee BE, Park HS, Kim YJ, Suh YJ, Kim JY, Ha EH. 2016. Long working hours and overweight and obesity in working adults. Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 28(1), 36. https://doi.org/10.1186/s40557-016-0110-7

Kim Oanh NT, Upadhyay N, Zhuang YH, Hao, ZP, Murthy DVS, Lestari P, Lindgren ES. 2006. Particulate air pollution in six Asian cities: Spatial and temporal distributions, and associated sources. Atmospheric Environment, 40(18), 3367–3380. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.ATMOSENV.2006.01.050

Korani A. 2016. The impact of smoking on inflammatory biomarkers in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Egyptian Journal of Chest Diseases and Tuberculosis 65(3), 597–603. https://doi.org/http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejcdt.2016.04.011

Longley ID, Gallagher MW, Dorsey JR, Flynn M, Bower KN, Allan JD. 2004. Street canyon aerosol pollutant transport measurements. The Science of the Total Environment, 334–335, 327–336. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2004.04.072

McCarthy N. 2018. Deaths From Air Pollution Worldwide | Statista. Retrieved November 13, 2018, from https://www.statista.com/chart/13575/deaths-from-air-pollution-worldwide/

Mckeown D. 2007. Air Pollution Burden of Illness from Traffic in Toronto, (November.

Omar NYMJ, Abas MR, Bin Rahman NA, Tahir NM, Rushdi AI, Simoneit BRT. 2007. Levels and distributions of organic source tracers in air and roadside dust particles of Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Environmental Geology 52(8), 1485–1500. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00254-006-0593-6

PEPA. 1997. Pakistan Environmental Protection Act, 7(3), 29. Retrieved from. https://www.elaw.org/system/files/Law-PEPA-1997.pdf

Phung D, Hien TT, Linh HN, Luong LMT, Morawska L, Chu C, Thai PK. 2016. Air pollution and risk of respiratory and cardiovascular hospitalizations in the most populous city in Vietnam. Science of The Total Environment 557, 322–330. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.03.070

Price Waterhouse Coopers. 2017. The Long View How will the global economic order change by 2050 ? Retrieved from http://www.pwc.com/gx/en/world-2050/assets/pwc-the-world-in-2050-full-report-feb-2017.pdf

Rice MB, Rifas-shiman SL, Litonjua AA, Oken, E, Gillman MW, Kloog I, Gold DR. 2016. Lifetime Exposure to Ambient Pollution and Lung Function in Children, 193, 881–888. https://doi.org/10.1164/rccm.201506-1058OC

Simoneit BRT. 2004. Composition and major sources of organic compounds of aerosol particulate matter sampled during the ACE-Asia campaign. Journal of Geophysical Research, 109(D19), D19S10. https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD004598

USEPA. 2012. Carbon sources and sinks in oceans.

Uttamang P, Aneja VP, Hanna AF. 2018. Supplement of Assessment of gaseous criteria pollutants in the Bangkok Metropolitan. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (2009), 12581–12593.

Watt M, Godden D, Cherrie J, Seaton A. 1995. Individual exposure to particulate air pollution and its relevance to thresholds for health effects: a study of traffic wardens. Occupational and Environmental Medicine 52(12), 790–792. https://doi.org/10.1136/OEM.52.12.790

WHO. 2016.  WHO | Ambient (outdoor) air quality and health. WHO. Retrieved from http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs313/en/

Zeka A. 2005. Short term effects of particulate matter on cause specific mortality: effects of lags and modification by city characteristics. Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 62(10), 718–725. https://doi.org/10.1136/oem.2004.017012

Zhang K, Batterman S. 2014. Air Pollution and Health Risks due toVvehicle Traffic. Science of the Total Environment (2), 307–316. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.01.074.Air