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Macroscopic and microscopic study of the embryonic development of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forskal, 1775) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in laboratory

Ouali-N’goran San-Whouly Mauricette, D’Almeida Marie-Anne, Kouassi Kouassi Philippe, Tano Yao, Fouabi Kouahou

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Int. J. Biosci.3(12), 97-104, December 2013

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/3.12.97-104

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Abstract

Schistocerca gregaria (Forskal, 1775) is a serious pest of crops. The knowledge of its biology can contribute to the integrated pest management against locusts. In laboratory conditions (32 ± 2.9 °C and 70 ± 5.3% RH), the duration of the embryonic development of Schistocerca gregaria is 12.63 ± 0.55 days. The macroscopic study showed that the bright yellow egg at laying, changes to orange 2-3 hours after laying; then to Brown 1-2 days later and eventually becomes clear at the end of development. These color changes are accompanied by weight gain of 8.3-20 mg at the end of development. Observation by transparency of rudiments of organs was made from the 5th day. These transformations correspond to the stages of segmentation, gastrulation and organogenesis. These three stages interfere and overlap.Histological investigations reveal partial and superficial segmentation, characterized by an early Karyiokinesis followed by cytokinesis. After one hour and thirty minutes the periblastula is formed. Gastrulation is initiated immediately, with movements of cell proliferation, deployment, embolism and delamination leading to the formation of the embryonic layers within 24 hours. Clusters of cells from which will derive rudiments of organs are observed on sections of eggs of two days. Morphogenesis begins with cephalization with the formation of the optic lobes, then the thorax and abdomen. The whole morphogenesis lasts about ten days. Knowledge of the duration and timing of embryonic development will allow to provide the best times and the means of intervention to contribute to the integrated pest management (IPM) against locusts.

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Macroscopic and microscopic study of the embryonic development of the desert locust Schistocerca gregaria (Forskal, 1775) (Orthoptera: Acrididae) in laboratory

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