Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Major diseases of cashew (Anacardium Occidentale L.) Caused by fungi and their control in Odisha, India

Research Paper | July 1, 2017

| Download 52

Akhtari Khatoon, Ashirbad Mohapatra, Kunja Bihari Satapathy

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.11( 1), 68-74, July 2017

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/11.1.68-74


IJB 2017 [Generate Certificate]


Cashew is an important cash crop in India but the incidence of diseases incur considerable losses in cashew plantations leading to reduction both in terms of quality and quantity. The present investigation was to study the fungi associated with cashew plant in Odisha in view of the warm and humid climate.  Isolation, identification, pathogenicity test and nutritional study of the test fungi as well as the control was undertaken in vitro. The result of the study revealed that seven species of fungi namely Pestalotiopsis palmarum, Phyllosticta sp., Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, Botryodiplodia theobromae, Fusarium oxysporum, Rhizoctonia solani and Chaetomium brassiliense were responsible for various diseases.   Pestalotiopsis palmarum and Phyllosticta sp. were found to cause leaf spots; Colletotrichum gloeosporioides causing leaf spot, die back and gummosis of stem; Botryodiplodia theobromae causing inflorescence blight, die-back of twigs and stem gummosis; Fusarium oxysporum and Rhizoctonia solani causing seedling blight and root rot and Chaetomium brassiliense being responsible for causing storage rots in cashew nuts. Pathogenicity test revealed that all the test fungi were pathogenic to their respective host parts except stem gummosis. The results of the nutritional study on different solid media indicated that Malt Extract Agar medium supported the maximum mycelial growth of all the test fungi except Chaetomium brassiliense and Phyllosticta sp. In-vitro antifungal activity of some selected fungicides indicated that Bavistin could control all the pathogenic fungi by 100 %. Further studies can recommend suitable control measures for the farmers and commercial growers.


Copyright © 2017
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Major diseases of cashew (Anacardium Occidentale L.) Caused by fungi and their control in Odisha, India

Abraham M, Padmakumari G. 1980. A new leaf spot disease of Cashew. Indian phytopathology 33(4), 626-627.

Adeniyi DO, Orisajo SB, Fademi OA, Adenuga OO, Dongo LN. 2011. Physiological studies of fungi complexes associated with cashew diseases. ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science 6(4), 34-38.

Freire FCO, Cardoso JE, Santos AA dos Viana EMP. 2002. Disease of cashew nut plants (Anacardium occidentale L.) in Brazil. Crop Protection 21, 489-491. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0261-2194(01)00138-7

Freire F.da CO, Kozakiewicz Z. 2005. Filamentous fungi, bacteria and yeasts associated with cashew kernels in Brazil. Revista Ciência Agronômica 36(2), 249 – 254.

Hammed LA, Adedeji AR. 2008. Incidence and control of twig dieback in young cashew in Ibadan (South – Western Nigeria). Agricultural Journal 3(3), 171-175.

Intini M. 1987. Phytopathological aspects of Cashew (A. ocidentalis) in Tanzania. International Journal of Tropical Plant Diseases 5, 115-130.

Joshi MS. 2005. Leaf blight of cashew incited by Pestalotia heterocornis Guba. Indian Phytopathology 58(2), 252.

Mishra KC. 1983. Studies on major disease problems of Cashew A. ocidentale L. in Orissa. MSc. thesis, Orissa University of Agricultural and Technology, Odisha, India. P. 78.

Nambiar MC. 1974. Recent trends in Cashew research. Indian Cashew Journal 9, 20-22.

Olunloyo OA. 1983. Results of three years spraying of with fungicide-insecticide combinations against inflorescence dieback disease of cashew. Plant Disease 67(12), 1319-1320.

Pattanaik HP, Senapati B, Mishra SK. 1987. Inflorescence-blight incidence in Cashew vavets- A preliminary study under East Coast Conditions. The Cashew 1(2), 10-11.

Shanthi S, Vittal BPR. 2012. Fungal diversity and the pattern of fungal colonization of Anacardium occidentale leaf litter. Mycology: An International Journal on Fungal Biology 3(2), 132-146.

Polanco C. 1973. Two new leaf pathogens of Cashew in Venenzuela. Agronomia Trop 23, 373-378.

Sarbkay AK, Agarwal DK, Vershney JL. 1978. Ten new host records of Pestalosiopsis from India. Indian Phytopathology 31, 535-536.

Sijaona MER, Reeder RH, Waller JM. 2005. Cashew leaf and nut blight – A new disease of cashew in Tanzania caused by Cryptosporiopsis spp. New Disease Reports 12, 13.

Singh S, Sehgal GS, Pandey PC, Balestei BK. 1967. Anthracthrose disease of Cashew (A. ocidentale L.) its cause, epidemiology. Indian Foresten 93(6), 374-376.

Suleiman MN. 2010. Occurrence and distribution of fungi associated with biodeterioration of cashew nuts in the eastern senatorial district, Kogi State, Nigeria. Archives of Applied Science Research 2(5), 462-465.

Sutton BC. 1980. The Coelomycetes. Fungi imperfecti with pycnidia, acervuli and stromata UK: Commonwealth Mycological Institute, Kew, 696 P.

Teixeira LMS. 1988. Diseases. in: Cashew tree culture in North East of Brazil. Vide P.M.S. Lima (ED.), Joraleza: Brazil. 157-179 P.

Vajna L, Rozsnyay Z. 2006. First report of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera pannosa on a new host sour cherry in Hungary. Plant Pathology 55(4), 576. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-3059.2006.01367.x.