Marine woodborers: A source of Lignocellulolytic enzymes

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Review Paper 01/10/2019
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Marine woodborers: A source of Lignocellulolytic enzymes

M Bosire Carren
Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res.15( 4), 10-29, October 2019.
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Lignocellulose, the structural framework of woody plants biomass, is an inexhaustible, renewable, and ubiquitous organic material on earth. It is present in huge amounts as agricultural and forestry residues and wastes generated from different industries including solid municipal wastes. Lignocellulosic biomass is an alternative, economical and eco-friendly source for biofuel production and other bio-based products. It is mainly comprised of cellulose, lignocellulose, and lignin polymers. Each of its structural components is degraded by specific enzymes, such as cellulases, hemicellulases and lignolytic enzymes, and these constituents in turn can be utilized as a sustainable source of energy. Biofuel offers great promise to replace fossil fuels without causing the feud of food-fuel supply as they are derived from non-edible sources such as lignocellulosic biomass. For this reason, lignocellulolytic enzymes are the focus of present decade research. These enzymes are obtained from microorganisms especially bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes. Marine woodborers digest wood and play a role in carbon cycling by bioconversion in the ocean. The woodborers also harbor microbial groups for production of lignocellulolytic enzymes. Various studies have evaluated the lignocellulose degrading ability of marine woodborers and that of microbial groups from their guts, which have potential in the production of value-added products. This paper is an overview of the diversity of marine woodborers endogenous lignocellulolytic enzymes as well as microbial groups from their guts that are sources of lignocellulolytic enzymes, along with a brief discussion on their hydrolytic enzyme systems involved in bioconversion.


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