J. Bio. Env. Sci.11(5), 201-215, November 2017
The Malam Jabba Valley, district Swat has a diverse flora with the spectacular scenic beauty and unspoilt nature that attracts tourists across the globe and makes the valley a paradise for the nature and adventure lovers. Floristically the area is located in Hindu Kush Range, dominated by Sino-Japanese type of vegetation. A detailed investigation was carried out from April 2013 to August 2015 in order to explore the medicinal folk recipes and establish conservation issues of gymnospermic flora. The current study revealed information on 10 plant species belonging to 8 genera and 4 families used by the different ethnic groups of the research area. Ethnomedicinal information on medicinal folk recipes was mostly collected from farmers, Herbalists, shop keepers and elders belonging to different communities and habitats through interviews and group discussions. IUCN Red List Criteria, 2001, version 3.1, and 2003 Version 3.0 were used to establish conservation status of gymnospermic flora. It was concluded that most of the gymnosperms were Critically endangered in the research area due to habitat destruction, degradation, habitat fragmentation, unscientific and overexploitation of natural resources, overgrazing, and ruthless deforestation, forest fire, introduction of invasive species, pathogenic diseases, human population and anthropogenic activities. There is override need to safeguard the gymnospermic plant biodiversity for the sustainable livelihood security of the research area.
Ahmad H. Conservation of Biodiversity: a threat to the global genetic resources with special reference to Pakistan. Udyana Today. EPS, Swat 1995, 2, 1-2.
Ali S, Qaiser M. 1986. A phytogeographical analysis of the phanerogames of Pakistan and Kashmir. Proc. Royal Soc. Edinburgh, 1986, 89B, 89-101.
Ali SI, Qaiser M. (Eds.) 1993. 2016. Flora of Pakistan. No. 194-2016. Department of Botany University of Karachi, Karachi.
Ali SI, Qaiser M. 1995-2016. Flora of Pakistan. No. 194-210. Department of Botany University of Karachi, Karachi.
Ali SI, Nasir YJ. 1991-1993. Flora of Pakistan. Nos. 191-193. Department of Botany, University of Karachi, Karachi.
Ali SI, Nasir YJ. 1989-1991. Flora of Pakistan (Fascicle series). Islamabad, Karachi. of Karachi, Karachi.
Ali SI, Nasir YJ. 1991-1993. Flora of Pakistan. Nos. 191-193. Department of Botany University of Karachi, Karachi.
Ali SI. 2008. Significance of Flora of Pakistan with special reference to Pak. J. Bot., 40(3), 967-971.
Anonymous. 1998. District Census Report of Swat, Population Census Organization Statistics Division, Islamabad. Census publication, 20, 1998, 12-19.
Daud M, Wazir SM, Khan RU, khan SU, A. khan, Ullah I, khattak A.. 2013. Ethnotaxonomical Study of Gymnosperms of Razmak North Waziristan Agency (NWA). Canadian Journal of Applied Sciences. 2(4), 440-458.
Guljan M, khan A, Jan F. 2009. Traditional, Medicinal and economic uses of Gymnosperms of Dir Kohistan valleys, NWFP, Pakistan. Ethnobotanical leaflets 13, 1509-21.
Hadi, Ibrar M. 2014.Ethnobotanical Profile of Gymnospermic Flora of Kalash Valley, District Chitral, Hindo-Kush Range, Pakistan. Am-Euras. J. Agri. and Environ Sci., 14(12), 1405-1408.
Hadi F, Razzaq A, Rehman A, Rashid A. 2013. Ethnobotanical notes on woody plants of Rech Valley, Torkhow, District Chitral, Hindu-Kush range, Pakistan. Scholarly Journal of Agricultural Science. 3(11), 468-472.
Hussain F, Khaliq A, Durani MJ. 1995. Ethnobotanical studies on some plants of Dabargai Hills, District Swat, Pakistan. In Shinwari (Eds). Proc. Int. Ethnobotanical Workshop. NARC, Islamabad, 207-215.
Hussain F, Islam M, Zaman A. 2006. Ethnobotanical profile of plants of Shawer Valley, Distt; Swat, Pakistan. Int. J. Biotech. 3, 301-307. IN: D. W. Tewari, “Himalayan Ecosystem”, Intel. Book Distr., Dehra, India.
Islam M, Ahmad H, Rashid A, Razzaq A, Akhter N, Ikramullah. 2006. Weeds and medicinal plants of Shawer Valley, District Swat. Pak. J. Weed Sci. 12, 83-88.
IUCN. “Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional and National Level “Version 4.0 (August 2010).
IUCN. 2001. IUCN red list categories and criteria: Version 3.1-IUCN species survival commission, IUCN Gland Switzer Land and Cambridge, UK, 2001. IUCN, Guidelines for Application of IUCN Red List Criteria at Regional Levels: Version 3.0 IUCN Species Survival Commission, 2003, 3-26.
Nasir E, Ali SI. 1970-1989. Flora of Pakistan (Fascicles series). Department of Botany, University of Karachi. Pakistan.
Nasir YJ, Rafiq RA. 1995. Wild Flowers of Pakisatan. Oxford University Press. London.
Razaq A, Rashid A, Ali H, Ahmad H, Islam M. 2010. Ethnomedicinal potential of plants of Changa Valley District Shangla, Pakistan. Pak. J. Bot., 42(5), 3463-3475.
Razzaq A, Rashid A, Islam M, Iqbal A, Khan H. 2013. Ethnomedicinal profile and conservation status of plant biodiversity in Alexander the Great Valley, District Shangla, Pakistan. Journal of Medicinal Plant Research 7 (20), 1379-1386.
Razzaq A, Hadi F, Rashid A, Ibrar M, Ali U. 2015. Exploration of Medicinal Plants and Their Conservation Status at Higher Altitude of District Shangla, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. American-Eurasian J. Agric. & Environ. Sci., 15(3), 328-331.