Int. J. Biosci.12(1), 119-125, January 2018
Dengue fever is a major health concern in the Philippines with its morbidity and mortality. Repellents represent an important tactic in preventing the spread of this disease, however, even with the stamp of approval from the World Health Organization, concerns regarding possible toxic reactions have been raised. Thus, the need for a study on the safety evaluation of mosquito repellents. Based on the survey conducted in this study, 50% of the study population used mosquito repellents as a form of self-protection. Investigation on microbiological contamination and antibacterial activities of the select commercially available mosquito products (CAAMP) were done. Bacterial load of the products ranged from (1.0 x 101 to 6.0 x 101 cfu/ml) and antimicrobial screening through the modified Kirby- Bauer Method revealed that conventional and citronella-based repellents showed no antimicrobial activity against Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. However some bio-repellents revealed a minimal antibacterial activity against the bacterial strains (6.1mm-13mm). Caution should be taken when using such products and excessive administration should be avoided.
Antwi FB, Shama LM, Peterson RK. 2008. Risk Assessment for the Insect Repellents DEET and Picardin. Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 5(1), 31-36.
Cavalieri SJ, Harbeck RJ, McCarter YS, Ortex JH, Rankin ID, Sautter RL, Sharp SE, Spiegel SA. 2005. Manual of antimicrobial susceptibility testing. American Society for Microbiology. American Society for Microbiology. ISBN 1-55581-349-6.
Center of Disease Control. 2004. DEET (N, N-Dimethyl-meta-toluamide) Chemical Technical Summary for Public Health and Public Safety Professionals. Atlanta Georgia: Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry.
Detmer A. Jorgensen C, Nylen D. 2007. A guidance document on microbiological control of cosmetic products. Danish EPA. Available at: www2.mst.dk/udgiv/publications/2010/978-87-92668-66-0/pdf/978-87-92668-67-7.pdf.
El-Mahmood AM, Ogbonna OB, Raji M. 2010. The Antibacterial Activity of Azadarichta indica (neem) Seed Extracts Against Bacterial Pathogens Associated with Eye and Ear infections. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 4(4), 1414-1421. www.dx.doi.org/10.5897/JMPR09.169.ISSN19960875
Environmental Protection Agency. 2005. New Pesticide Fact Sheet. United States. Prevention, Pesticides and Toxic Substances.
Environmental Protection Agency. 2009. Active Ingredients Found in Insect Repellents: Topical and Chemical Fact Sheets.
Health Canada. 2005. Guidelines for Cosmetics, Manufacturers, Importers and Distributors. Cat. No. H46-2/05-3931 ISBN 0-662-68811-2. Available at: www.hc-sc-gc-ca/cps-spc/cosmet-person/indus/require-exige/index-eng.php.
Hugbo PG, Onyekweli AO, Igwe I. 2003. Microbial Contamination and Preservative Capacity of Some Brands of Cosmetic Creams. Tropical Journal of Pharmaceutical Research 2(2), 229-243.
International Federation of Organic Agriculture Movement. 2003. Developing Local Marketing Initiatives for Organic Products in Asia, A Guide for Small and Medium Enterprises. Available www.ifoam.org/growing_organic/7_training/t_materials/3_economics_markets_trade/local_marketing.php
Khurana N, Sharma RK, Bhaduria S. 2010. Microbiological Quality Assessment of Some Commercial Herbal Drugs. International Journal of Pharmaceutical Quality Assurance 2(4), 76-78.
Kongkaew C, Sakunrag I, Chaiyakunapruk N, Tawatsin A. 2011. Effectiveness of Citronella Preparations in Preventing Mosquito Bites: A systematic review of controlled laboratory experimental studies. Tropical Medicine and International Health 16, 802-810. http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365.3156.2011.02781
Kumar A, Rongpharpi SR, Duggal SD, Gur S, Choudhary S, Khare P. 2017. Clinical, Epidemiological and Microbiological Profile of Dengue Fever at a Tertiary Care Hospital in Delhi, India. Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medicine 2(2).
Kumar S, Wahab N, Mishra M, Warikoo R. 2012. Anti-mosquito potential of the essential oil extract from the seeds of Apium graveolens against Indian strain of the Aedes aegyptii L. (Diptera: Culicidae). Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine 1-6.
Maia MF, Moore SJ. 2011. Plant-based insect repellents: a review of their efficacy, development, and testing. Malaria Journal 10 (Supplement 1). http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1475-2875-10-S1-S11.
Mittal PK, Subbarao SK. 2003. Prospects of using herbal products in the control of mosquito vectors. ICMR Bulletin 33(1), 1-10.
Mohammed H. 2011. Bacterial and Fungal Contamination in Three Brands of Cosmetics Marketed in Iraq. Iraqi Journal of Pharmacological Research 20(1).
Norris EJ, Coats JR. 2017. Current and Future Repellent Technologies: The Potential of Spatial Repellents and Their Place in Mosquito-Borne Disease Control. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 14(124). http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14020124
Orus P, Leranzo S. 2005. Current Trends in Cosmetic Microbiology. International Journal of Microbiology 8(3), 139-142.
Owens S. 1996. Counting Plates and Calculating Results. Center for Electronic Optics: MSU. www.epi.net.org/eng/Counting_plates_and_Calculating_Results.pdf
Phasomkusolsil S, Soonwera M. 2011. Comparative Mosquito Repellency of Essential Oils Against Aedes aegypti (Linn), Anopheles dirus (Peyto and Harrison) and Culex quinquefasciatus (Say). Asian Journal of Tropical Medicine S113-S118.
Rajeh MAB, Kwan YP, Zakaria Z, Latha LY, Jothy SL, Sasidharan S. 2012. Toxicity impacts of Euphorbia hirta L extract on behavior, organs body weight index and histopathology of organs of the mice and Artemiasalina. Pharmacognosy Research 4(3), 170-177. http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0974f-8490.99085
Scholtyseek R. 2004. Good Manufacturing Practice for Producers of Cosmetic Ingredients. Business Briefing: Global Cosmetics Manufacturing.
Scientific Committee on Emerging and Newly Identified Health Risks (SCENIHR). 2009. Assessment of the Antibiotic Resistance Effects of Biocides. Available online: http://ec.europa.eu/health/ph_risk/committees/04_scenihr_0_021.pdf
Sributra D, Soonwera M, Waltanachanobon S, Poungjai S. 2011. Evaluation of herbal essential oil as repellents against Aedes aegyptii (L.) and Anopheles dirus. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Biomedicine S124-S1286309.
Suvarna K, Lolas A, Hughes P, Friedman RL. 2011. Case Studies of Microbial Contamination in Biologic Product Manufacturing. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Reviews 14(1), 50-56.
Wang T, Gu X. 2007. In Vitro Percutaneous Permeation of the Repellent DEET and Sunscreen Oxybenzone across Human Skin. Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences 10(1), 17-25.
World Health Organization. 2011. Prevention and control of dengue and dengue haemorrhagic fever (Revised and Expanded Edition). Comprehensive guidelines Number 60, 134.