Microhabitats of Pholcid Spiders (Araneae: Pholcidae) in Mt. Kitanglad Agri-Ecological and Techno-Demo Center, Imbayao, Bukidnon, Philippines

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/02/2016
Views (202) Download (6)

Microhabitats of Pholcid Spiders (Araneae: Pholcidae) in Mt. Kitanglad Agri-Ecological and Techno-Demo Center, Imbayao, Bukidnon, Philippines

Eddie P. Mondejar, Olga M. Nuñeza
J. Bio. Env. Sci.8( 2), 44-52, February 2016.
Certificate: JBES 2016 [Generate Certificate]


This study was conducted in Mt. Kitanglad Agri-Ecological and Techno-Demo Center, Brgy. Imbayao, Malaybalay, Bukidnon. The study aims to determine the microhabitats of pholcid spiders. Using Cruising method combined with visual search, pholcid spiders were searched on the underside of broad-leaf plants, buttresses, between rock and rock crevices, fallen logs, forest floor litter, and other possible microhabitats. Fourteen microhabitats were identified. Leaf litter and understory plant were the most species-rich with moderate diversity of pholcid spiders. High species richness of pholcid species was found between the paired microhabitats of bamboo sheath and understory plant, with degree of complementarity or distinctness value of 100%. This indicates that pholcid spiders tend to be more species-specific in the selection of microhabitats.


Albrecht M, Gotelli NJ. 2001. Spatial and Temporal niche partitioning in grassland ants. Oecologia 126, 134-141.

Amezaga I, Rodriguez MA. 1998. Resource partitioning of four sympatric bark beetles depending on swarming dates and tree species. Forest Ecology and Management 109, 127-135.

Bengtson DA. 1984. Resource partitioning by Menidia menidia and Menidia beryllina (Osteichtyes:Atherinidae). Marine Ecology – Progress Series 18, 21-30.

Blackledge TA, Binford GJ, Gillespie RG. 2003. Resource use within a community of Hawaiian spiders (Araneae: Tetragnathidae). Annales Zoologici Fennici 40, 293-303.

Butt A, Tahir HM. 2010. Resource Partitioning among five Agrobiont Spiders of a Rice Ecosystem. Zoological Studies 49, 470-480.

Cady AB. 1984. Microhabitat selection and locomotor activity of Schizocosa ocreata (Walckenaer) (Araneae, Lycosidae). Journal of Arachnology 11, 297-307.

Carvalho LS, Gomes JO, Neckel-Oliveira S, Lo-Man-Hung NF. 2012. Microhabitat use and intraspecific associations in the whip spider Heterophrynus longicornis (Arachnida: Amblypygi) in forest fragments formed by the Tucuruí Dam lake, Pará, Brazil. Journal of Natural History 46, 1263-1272.

Casas J, Steinmann T, Dangles O. 2008. The Aer-dynamic Signature of Running Spiders. PLoS ONE 3, e2116.

Chapin KJ. 2014. Microhabitat and spatial complexity predict group size of the whip spider Heterophrynus batesii in Amazonian Ecuador. Journal of Tropical Ecology 30, 173-177.

Colwell RK, Coddington JA. 1994. Estimating Terrestrial Biodiversity through extrapolation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B 345, 101-118.

De Omena PM, Romero GQ. 2008. Fine-scale microhabitat selection in a bromeliad-dwelling jumping spider (Salticidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 94, 653-662.

de Omena PM, Romero GQ. 2010. Using visual cues of microhabitat traits to find home: the case study of a bromeliad-living jumping spider (Salticidae). Behavioral Ecology 21, 690–695.

de Souza ALT, Modena EDS. 2004. Distribution of Spiders on different types of inflorescences in the Brazilian pantanal. Journal of Arachnology 32, 345-348.

Deeleman-Reinhold CL. 1986. Leaf-dwelling Pholcidae in Indo-Australian rain forests. International Congress of Arachnology (Panama, 1983) 9, 45-48.

Figueira JEC, Vasconcellos-Neto J. 1993. Reproductive success of Latrodectus geometricus (Theridiidae) on Paepalanthus bromelioides (Eriocaulaceae): Rosette size, Microclimate, and Prey Capture. Ecotropicos 5, 1-10

Hammer Ø, Harper D, Ryan PD. 2001. Past: Paleontological Statistics Software Package for Education and Data Analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica 4, 9.

Hanski I, Koskela H. 1979. Resource partitioning in six guilds of dung-inhabiting beetles (Coleoptera). Annals of Entomologica Fennica 45, 1-12

Harwood JD, Obrycki JJ. 2005. Web-Construction Behavior of Linyphiid Spiders (Araneae, Linyphiidae): Competition and Co-Existence within a Generalist Predator Guild. Journal of Insect Behavior 18, 593-607

Harwood JD, Sunderland KD, Symondson WOC. 2003. Web-location by linyphiid spiders: prey-specific aggregation and foraging strategies. Journal of Animal Ecology 72, 745-756.

Hebets EA, Elias, MO, Mason AC, Miller GL, Stratton GE. 2008. Substrate-dependent signaling success in the wolf spider, Schizocosa retrorsa. Animal Behaviour 75, 605-615.

Heaney LR. 2001. Island Biogeography, Paradigm Lost? Frontiers of Biogeography 2, 94-97

Huber BA. 2005. Revision of the genus Spermophora Hentz in Southeast Asia on the Pacific Islands, with descriptions of the three new genera (Araneae: Pholcidae). Zool. Med.Leiden 79, 61-114.

Huber BA. 2009. Life on leaves: Leaf-dwelling Pholcids of Guinea, with emphasis on Crossopriza cylindrogaster, a spider with inverted resting position, pseudo eyes, lampshade web, and tetrahedral egg- sac (Araneae: Pholcidae). Journal of Natural History 43, 2491-2523.

Huber BA, Schütte A. 2009. Preliminary notes on leaf-dwelling Metagonia spiders (Araneae: Pholcidae) in the Esquinas Rainforest near La Gamba, Costa Rica: leaf preference, mimesis, and web structure. Contributions to Natural History (Bern) 12, 681-697.

Huber BA. 2014. Pholcidae. In: Biodiversidad de Artrópodos Argentinos, Vol. 3 (eds. S. Roig-Juñent, L.E. Claps, J.J. Morrone), 131-140. Sociedad Entomológica Argentina.

Kozlowski AJ, Gese EM, Arjo WM. 2008. Niche Overlap and Resource Partitioning Between Sympatric Kit Foxes and Coyotes in the Great Basin Desert of Western Utah. The American Midland Naturalist 160, 191-208.

Lapinski W, Tschapka M. 2014. Dessication resistance reflects patterns of microhabitat choice in a Central American assemblage of wandering spiders. Journal of Experimental Biology 217, 2789-2795.

Luttmerding HA, Demarchi DA, Lea EC, Vold T, Meidinger DV. 1990. Describing ecosystems in the field. Second edition. British Columbian Ministry. Environment, Lands and Parks and British Columbian Ministry of For MOE Manual 11. Victoria, B.C. 213 P.

Mallis RE, Hurd LE. 2005. Diversity among ground-dwelling spider assemblages: Habitat Generalists and Specialists. Journal of arachnology 33, 101-109

Martin TE. 1998. Are Microhabitat Preferences of Co-existing Species under selection and Adaptive? Ecology 79, 656-670.

Morrison ML, With KA. 1987. Inter-seasonal and Intersexual Resource Partitioning in Hairy and White-headed Woodpeckers. The Auckland 104, 225-233

Redborg KE, Redborg AH. 2000. Resource Partitioning of Spider Hosts (Arachnida, Araneae) by two Mantispid Species (Neuroptera, Mantispidae) in an Illinois Woodland. Journal of Arachnology 28, 70-78.

Rocha-Filho LC, Rinaldi IMP. 2011. Crab spiders (Araneae: Thomisidae) in flowering plants in a Brazilian “Cerrado” ecosystem. Brazilian Journal of Biology 71, 359-364.

Schoener TW. 1974. Resource Partitioning in Ecological Communities. Science, New Series 185, 27-39.

Sushma HS, Singh M. 2006. Resource partitioning and interspecific interactions among sympatric rain forest arboreal mammals of the Western Ghats, India. Behavioral Ecology 17(3), 479-490.

Tong YF, Li SQ. 2009. Six new cave-dwelling pholcid spiders (Araneae: Pholcidae) from Hainan Island, with two newly recorded genera from China. Zootaxa 1988, 17-32.

Walter GH. 1991.  What  is  resource  partitioning. Journal of Theoritical Biology 150, 137-143.

www.googleearth.com. 2015. Philippines. Retrieved from www.googleearth.com.

www.ivoteph.com.   2013.    Malaybalay    City Barangay  Elections  2013,  Results.  Retrieved  from http://www.ivoteph.com/barangayelections/malaybalay-city-barangay-elections-2013-results/

Yuen  E,  Dudgeon  D.  2015.  Spatio-temporal variability  in  the  distribution  of  ground-dwelling riparian spiders and their potential role in water-to- land energy transfer along Hong Kong forest streams. PeerJ 3, e1134.