Mobility and health risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in drinking water of peri urban areas of District Muzaffargarh, Pakistan

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Research Paper 03/06/2024
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Mobility and health risk assessment of heavy metal contamination in drinking water of peri urban areas of District Muzaffargarh, Pakistan

Ishtiaq Ahmad, Muhammad Imran Mahar, Muhammad Tansar Abbas
Int. J. Biosci.24( 6), 37-47, June 2024.
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The present study was conducted to evaluate the status of heavy metals in underground drinking water sources. The health risks of taking heavy metals along with other dissolved elements in drinking water were assessed.  A total of 60 underground water samples were collected from the three study sites (Kot Addu, Muzaffargarh, and Alipur). Heavy metals consisting of Pb, Cd, Cr and Nickel along other dissolved elements including cations and anions were determined in underground drinking water samples with the help of ‘Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry’ and observed results were compared with permissible limits revealed by the World Health Organization (WHO). Beside of these, health risk indicators such as the chronic daily intake (CDI) and the health risk index (HRI) were determined. Our results showed that the concentrations of Cadmium (Cd), Lead (Pb), Chromium (Cr), Nickel (Ni), and Manganese (Mn) which were slightly higher than the permissible limits suggested by the WHO. The values of CDI and the health risk index (HRI) values exceeded the safe limits (>1) in all the water samples collected from three study sites. The above-mentioned analysis shows that ingesting of heavy metals contaminated drinking water causes an incipient health danger to the populations of these localities. Furthermore, it has been observed that both anthropogenic and geologic activities were primary sources of drinking water contamination in the investigated areas.


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