Modeling of cadmium transport in the soil under sewage sludge application

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/01/2015
Views (270) Download (23)

Modeling of cadmium transport in the soil under sewage sludge application

Azita Behbahaninia, Maryam Farahani
J. Bio. Env. Sci.6( 1), 361-365, January 2015.
Certificate: JBES 2015 [Generate Certificate]


The purpose of this study is to assess the possible contamination of the groundwater by Cd derived from sewage sludge through a plot study. For this purpose, four experimental plots, each size 2 by 10 m at Wastewater Treatment Plant-Shoush was prepared. A pvc drainage pipe was installed in one meter depth of each plot to collect the leached water. First plot was irrigated with pipe water as control plot, second plot with effluent from Shoush wastewater treatment Plant, third plot with sludge and pipe water, fourth plot with sewage sludge and effluent. Soil samples were taken from the topsoil to 100 cm depth, each sample for every 10 cm depth from each plot. Cd concentration was measured as a function of depth after 150 days. Hydrus-1D was calibrated for Cd transport in the site. Modeling and measured results were nearly the same. Simulation results for plot 2 and 4 indicated small risk of groundwater contamination. High concentration of Cd near the soil surface increases a concern about the crop for Cd uptake. Simulation results for plot 3 and 4 indicates that in Hydrus-1D adsorption parameters were estimated in order to allow a deeper transport of Cd which had actually occurred duo to macropore flow.


Black CA. 1965. Methods of soil analysis, Part 2. 2ed, Agronomy Monog. 9, ASA, Madison, WI. 93-98.

Chaney RL. 1994. Trace metal movement in soil – plant systems and bioavailability of biosolids. In: Clapp, C. E. editor. Sewage sludge land utilization and the environment Soil Science. Soc. Amer. Pub. Madison, Wisconsin: 27-31.

Heckman JR. 1987. Residual fffects of sewage sludg eon soybean accumulation of heavy metal. Journal of Environmental Quality.16, 113-117

Jacques D, Simunek J, Mallants D, Van Genuchten M. Th. 2008. Modelling Coupled Water flow, Solute transport and geochemical reactions affecting heavy metal migration in a podzol soil.Geoderma.145, 449-461 doi:10.1016/j.agee.2008.06.008

Jones RL. 1975. Cadmium and zinc contens of corn leaf and grain produced by sludge-amended soil. Journal of environmental Quality. 4, 509-514

Mallants D, van Genuchten M Th, Šimůnek J, Jacques D, Seetharam S. 2011. Leaching of contaminants to groundwater. In ‘Dealing with Contaminated Sites’, (Ed F Swartjens), 787-850. doi: 10.1007/978-90-481-9757-6_1

Mcbride MB, Richards BK, Stenhuis T, Russo JJ, Sauve S. 1997. Mobility and solubility of toxic metals and nutrients in soil fifteen years after sludge application. Soil Science 162, 487–500.

Melo WJ, Aguiar, Pde S, Melo, GMP, Melo, VP. 2007. Nickel in a tropical soil treated with sewage sludge and cropped with maize in a long-term field study. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 39, 1341-1347.

Moshood NT. 2009. Contamination of shallow groundwater system and soil–plant transfer of trace metals under amended irrigated fields, Agricultural water management, 96 (3), 437-444. doi: 10.1016/j.agwat.2008.09.010

Moradi A, Abbaspour KC, Afyuni M. 2005. Modelling field-scale Cadmium transport below the root zone of a sewage sludge amended soil in an arid region in central Iran. Journal of contaminant Hydrology. 79, 187-206. doi: 10.1016/j.jconhyd.2005.07.005

Muchuweti M, Birkett JW, Chinyanga E, Zvauya R, Scrimshaw MD, Lester JN. 2006. Heavy metal content of vegetables irrigated with mixture of wastewater and sewage sludge in Zimbabwe: implications for human health. Agriculture, ecosystem, and environment. 112, 41-48.

Simunek J, Jacque D, Van Genuchten M Th, Malleants D. 2006. Multicomponent Geochemical Transport Modeling using Hydrus- D and HP. Journal of the American water resources Association.42(6), 1537-1547

Šimůnek J, van Genuchten MTh. 2008. Modeling nonequilibrium flow and transport processes using Hydrus, Vadose Zone Journal, 7(2), 782-797. doi:10.2136/VZJ2007.0074