Monospecific bloom of noxious raphidophyte Chattonella marina in the coastal water of South West coast of India

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/02/2011
Views (373) Download (13)

Monospecific bloom of noxious raphidophyte Chattonella marina in the coastal water of South West coast of India

Kunnatholickal Balakrishnan Padmakumar, Lathika Cicily Thomas, Thaliyakkattil Chandran Salini, Elizabeth John, Narayana Ravindranatha Menon, Veloorkirakathil Narayana Sanjeevan
Int. J. Biosci.1( 1), 57-69, February 2011.
Certificate: IJB 2011 [Generate Certificate]


A massive monospecific bloom of toxic marine raphidophyte Chattonella marina was observed off Kochi along the southwest coast of India during lateSeptember 2009 with very high cell density (1.59 x 107 cells L-1) and wide spatial distribution. The tear drop shaped cells were 38-65 µm long, 25-30 µm wide and having large number of chloroplasts. Almost 90% of the phytoplankton population was composed of C. marina in the bloom area. Other phytoplankters were few in number represented by Skeletonema costatum, Rhizosolenia spp., Chaetoceros spp., Psuedo-nitzschia spp. etc. and amongthese Skeletonema costatum was dominant with cell density 2.3 x 104 cells L-1. The concentration of photosynthetic pigment, chlorophyll a was 8.3 µg L-1 in the bloom area. Toxicity test using the alcohol extracts of the Chattonella bloom samples showed characteristic neurotoxic symptoms in fishes leading to mortality.


Amano K, Watanable M, Kohata K, Harada S. 1998. Conditions necessary for Chattonella antique red tide outbreaks. Limnology and Oceanography 43, 117-128.

Balachandran VK, Rajagopalan MS, Pillai VK. 1989. Chlorophyll a and pheo-pigment as indices of biological productivity in the inshore surface waters off Cochin. Indian J. Fisheries 36 (3), 227-237.

Graneli E, Risinger L. 1995. Was the Chrysochromulina polylepis bloom in 1988 caused by a release of cobalt or vitamin B12 from a previous bloom of Skeletonema costatum? Harmful algal blooms In: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on Toxic Marine Phytoplankton, Lavoisier, Nantes, France, 223–229.

Grasshoff K. 1983. Methods of Seawater analysis. New York: Verlag Chemie, 419.

Handy SM, Coyne KJ, Portune KJ, Demir E, Doblin MA, Hare CE, Cary SC, Hutchins DA. 2005. Evaluating vertical migration behaviour of harmful raphidophytes in the Delaware Inland Bays utilizing quantitative real time PCR. Aquatic Microbial Ecology 40, 121-132.

Hansen PB, Dahl E, Danielssen DS. 2001. On blooms of Chattonella in the North Sea/ Skagerrankin April- May 1998. In: Proceedings of 9th International Conference on Harmful Algal Blooms, G M Hallegraeff, S I Blackburn, C J Bolch, Lewis R J editors, Australia: UNESCO Tasmania, 78-81.

Hara Y, Doi K, Chihara M. 1994. Four new species of Chattonella (Raphidophyceae, Chromophyta) from Japan. Japanese Journal of Phycology 42, 407-420.

Hornell J. 1917. A new protozoan cause of widespread mortality among marine fishes. Ibid 11, 53-66.

Iwasaki H. 1979. Physiological ecology of red tide flagellates. In: Biochemistry and Physiology of Protozoa, 2nd ed., M Levandowsky, S Hunter editors, New York: Academic Press, 357-393.

Jugnu R, Kripa. 2009. Effect of Chattonella marina [(Subrahmanyan) Hara et Chihara 1982] bloom on the coastal fishery resources along Kerala coast, India. Indian Journal of Marine Sciences 38(1), 77-88.

Karunasagar I, Karunasagar I. 1992. Gymnodinium nagasakiense red tide off Someshwar, West coast of India and mussel toxicity. Journal of Shellfish Research 11, 477-478.

Kawano I, Oda T, Ishimatsu A, Muramatsu T. 1996. Inhibitory effects of the iron chelator Desferrioxamine (Desferal) on the generation of activated oxygen species of Chattonella marina. Marine Biology 126, 765–771.

Marshall JA, Hovenden M, Oda T, Hallegraeff GM. 2002. Photosynthesis does influence superoxide production in the ichthyotoxic alga Chattonella marina (Raphidophyceae). Journal of Plankton Research 24, 231-1236.

Mikhail SK. 2007. First monospecific bloom of the harmful raphidophyte Chattonella antique (Hada) Ono in Alexandria waters related to water quality and copepod grazing. Chemistry and Ecology 23(5), 393-407.

Nakamura Y, Watanable M. 1983a. Growth characteristics of Chattonella antique (raphidophyceae). Part I. Effects of temperature, salinity, light intensity and pH on growth. Journal of the Oceanographic Society of Japan 39, 110-114.

Naqvi SWA, George MD, Narvekar PV, Jayakumar DA, 9 others. 1998. Severe fish mortality associated with red tide observed in the sea off Cochin. Current Science 75(6), 543-544.

Oda T, Ishimatsu A, Takeshita S, Muramatsu T. 1994. Hydrogen peroxide production by the red tide flagellate Chattonella marina. Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 58, 957-958.

Onoue Y, Haq MS, Nozawa K. 1990. Separation of neurotoxins from Chattonella marina. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi 56, 695

Onoue Y, Nozawa K. 1989. Separation of toxin from harmful red tides occurring along the coast of Kagoshima Prefecture. In: Red tides- Biology, Environmental Science and Toxicology. Okaichi T, Anderson DM, Nemeto T editors, New York: Elsevier, 371-374.

Parsons TR, Maita Y, Lalli CM. 1984. A manual of chemical and biological methods for Seawater analysis. New York: Pergamon press, 173.

Pond  S,  Pickard  GL.  1983.  Introductory  Dynamic  Oceanography.  New  York: Pergamon press, 329.

Smayda TJ. 1990. Novel and nuisance phytoplankton blooms in the sea: evidences for global epidemic. In: Toxic Marine Phytoplankton, Graneli E, Sundstorm B, Edler L, Anderson DM, editors, Amsterdam: Elsevier, 29-40.

Subrahmanyan R. 1954. On the life history and ecology of Hornellia marina gen. et sp. Nov., (Chloromonadineae), causing green discoloration of the sea and mortality among marine organisms off the Malabar coast. Indian Journal of Fisheries 1, 182-203.

Throndsen  J.  1997.  The  Planktonic  Marine  flagellates.  InIdentifying  Marine Phytoplankton. Tomas CR editor, New York: Academic press, 591-729.

Tomas  CR.  1997.     Identifying  Marine   diatoms   and  dinoflagellates,  New   York: Academic press, 858.

Yamaguchi M, Imai I, Honjo T. 1991. Effects of temperature, salinity and irradiance on the growth rate of the noxious red tide flagellate Chattonella antique and C. marina (Raphidophyceae). Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 57, 1277-1284.