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Morphological Analysis on the Body Shape of Oreochromis niloticus using Fluctuating Asymmetry as an Indicator of Stress in Major River Tributaries of Bayog Watershed

Research Paper | March 1, 2021

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Rosanilio M. Yagos

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Int. J. Biosci.18( 3), 214-227, March 2021

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/18.3.214-227


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This study utilized the fluctuating asymmetry as a biomarker of stress in the morphology of O. niloticus from the river tributaries of Bayog Watershed, Bayog, Zamboanga del Sur. A total of 136 samples were used in this study, distributed into 17 males and 17 females for each of the sampling sites. Then, it was landmarked with the use of thin plate spline (TPS) series.  Eighteen anatomical landmarks were selected on fish images and were subjected to Symmetry and Asymmetry in Geometric Data (SAGE) software. Procrustes two-way mixed model ANOVA showed significant levels of both directional and fluctuating asymmetries (FA) among populations and between sexes.  However, Principal Component Analysis (PCA) revealed that populations from Depore, Dipili and Guinoman rivers have relatively higher fluctuating asymmetry compared to Sibugay river based on localized trait asymmetry and the number of affected landmarks. Thus, it indicates more stress or disturbances experienced by the three populations of O. niloticus compared to the Sibugay river.  Understanding the relationship between the species and its environment would be useful to determine the health of a given freshwater ecosystem. This might be essential to the local government for inclusion in the policies for the management of the river system and future studies in the area.


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Morphological Analysis on the Body Shape of Oreochromis niloticus using Fluctuating Asymmetry as an Indicator of Stress in Major River Tributaries of Bayog Watershed

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