Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Morphological variations of green mussel (Perna viridis) in bula, general santos city using geometric morphometric analysis

Research Paper | February 1, 2016

| Download 4

Crystal Gayle B. Villaluz, Jorome C. Tolete, Frenzy B. Almocera, Merhama J. Janti, Trixie Joy E. Pilar, Mark Anthony J. Torres, Elani A. Requieron

Key Words:

J. Bio. Env. Sci.8( 2), 216-224, February 2016


JBES 2016 [Generate Certificate]


The Philippines, being a tropical country in the Pacific, has long been culturing mussels for business and food consumption. However, they cannot determine at a glance what gender is which. This study is conducted to determine the difference of the male P. viridis and the female P. viridis through landmark based Geometric-Morphometric method. The population sample of P. viridis were obtained from Bula, General Santos City and was analyzed using the Rohlf’s Tps series. This software helps in comparing the two landmark-defined shapes of P. viridis. Nine homologous points were plotted: (1) Umbo, (2) Ligament, (3) Posterior Adductor 1, (4) Posterior Adductor 2, (5) Posterior Adductor 3, (6) Posterior Adductor 4, (7) Posterior border, (8) Projection and (9) Anterior Adductor to determine the difference of shell size of male and female P. viridis. This study focuses on relationships between length-width and length-breadth through relative warps and on the abundance of both sexes among the specimen. The value of significance is 1 (p > 0.05) therefore, it is significant and there is a difference on the shell shape. The discriminant function analysis also showed that p = 1, therefore there is a significant difference in the shapes of both sexes. Results show that male P. viridis shell have a total variation of 89.56%, basing from the six relative warps, compared to that of the female P. viridis which is 90.65%, with a slight variation at the ligament and posterior adductor border regions. Relative warps also show that female mussels are wider and bigger than male mussels. It is suggested that the observation of the green mussel shells are done within one area only so as to prevent misleading inputs and have certainty on the report between male and female mussel shell comparison done on only one species.


Copyright © 2016
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Morphological variations of green mussel (Perna viridis) in bula, general santos city using geometric morphometric analysis

Ahmed M. 1974. Chromosomes of two species of the marine mussel Perna. Bol. Insitute Oceanogr. University. Oriente 13, 17-22.

Arshad A. 2012. “Incidence of Hermaphrodite in Green Mussel Perna Viridis along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia.” Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances. ISSN 1683-9919. 1012.

Cookies on Invasive Species Compendium. 2015. Invasive Species Compendium Data Sheets on Perna viridis. Europe.

MacLeod N. 2009. Principal Warps, Relative Warps and Procrustes PCA. Paleontology Department the Natural History Museum, London. Retrieved on

Masterson J. 2007. Perna viridis. Smithsonian Marine Station. Fort Pierce, Florida.

Rajagopal S. 1998. Settlement and growth of the green mussel Perna viridis(L.) in coastal waters: influence of water velocity. Laboratory of Aquatic Ecology, University of Nijmegen, the Netherlands. 32, 313-322, 1998.

Valladares A. 2010. Shell Shape Variation in Populations of Mytiluschilensis (Hupe 1854) from Southern Chile: A Geometric Morphometric Approach. Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Chile, Santiago, Chile.