Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Need for sustainable solution: Environment, rural agriculture and food security affected by electronic waste pollution of streams and Sakubva River

Research Paper | February 1, 2022

| Download 30

Douglas Marowa

Key Words:

Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res.20( 2), 25-39, February 2022


IJAAR 2022 [Generate Certificate]


Electronic waste is currently the largest growing waste stream in the world. It is hazardous, complex and expensive to treat in an environmentally sound manner. Unsustainable electronic waste management of has led to pollution of rivers, which has negatively affected the environment, agriculture activities and food security. The research sought to investigate the waste management of electronic waste, its impact on environment, agriculture and food security in the rural communities. To recommend sustainable waste management strategy for the country and reduce the adverse effects on environment and agriculture to enhance food security. Zimbabwe has become an electronic waste hazard as waste pile up at backyard and in houses. A research survey was conducted in Mutare urban and peri-urban rural communities involving a sample of 1250 participants revealed that 29% of waste was electronic effluent, 29% of waste in backyard, 22% of waste in storerooms. The peri-urban rural communities are heavily affected downstream as the Sakubva River and its streams are polluted, either poisoned or drying up. Methods of disposal were landfilling, burning, backyard and storeroom storage. Food security as a state where the availability, accessibility, utilization and stability of food are ensured and food production is enough to cover the food demand of the people has been heavily affected as water for gardening and field crop irrigation is polluted. It was revealed that in some areas farmers have totally stopped gardening as the source of water has dried up due to both soil and water pollution.


Copyright © 2022
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Need for sustainable solution: Environment, rural agriculture and food security affected by electronic waste pollution of streams and Sakubva River

Abalansa, Samuel, Badr El Mahrad, John Icely, Alice Newton. 2021. “Electronic Waste, an Environmental Problem Exported to Developing Countries: The GOOD, the BAD and the UGLY” Sustainability 13, no. 9, 5302. https://doi.org /10.3390/su13095302

Balde CP. 2017. The Global E-waste Monitor 2017, UNU, ITU, ISWA, 2017

Barnes, DKA, Galgani F, Thompson RC, Barlaz M. 2009. Accumulation and fragmentation of plastic debris in global environments. Philos. Trans. R. Soc. B Biol. Sci. 2009 364, 1985-1998.

Basel Action Network (BAN). 2011. Toxic trade news: “Cochin Port a safe conduit for imported e-waste”; “Most aspects of e-waste not regulated in U.S., Va.”; “Research identifies U.S electronic waste as likely source of toxic jewellery imports from China”; “178 countries agree to allow the ban on exports of toxic wastes to developing countries to become law.” Available: http://www.ban.org/

Basel Convention. 1989. “Basel Convention.” “Basel Convention Home Page”

Borthakur A. and Singh P. 2020. Mapping the Emergence of Research Activities on E-Waste: A Scientometric Analysis and an in-Depth Review; Elsevier: Amsterdam, The Netherlands pp. 191-206.

Choksi S. 2001.The Basel Convention on the control of transboundary movements of hazardous wastes and their disposal: 1999 Protocol on Liability and Compensation. Ecol. Law Q. 28, 509.

Dharini K, Bernadette Cynthia J, Kamalambikai B, Arul Sudar Celestina JP, Muthu D. 2017. Hazardous E-waste and its impact on soil structure. Earth and Environmental Science 80 (2017) 012057

Diaz L. 2006. Solid Waste Management, Volume 2. UNEP/Earthprint, 2006.

Diss. 2019. South-East Asia correspondent Kathryn 2019. “This is the new dumping ground for the world’s high-tech trash”. ABC News.

Economist. 2009. “Muck and brass: The waste business smells of money.” The Economist. 2009 02 28. pp. 10-12.

EMA. 2002. Environmental Management Act Chapter 20, 27, Parliament of Zimbabwe

EPA. 2003. “International Waste Activities.” (2003). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.

EPC. 2008.“Directive 2008/98/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 19 November 2008 on waste and repealing certain Directives (Text with EEA relevance)”. europa.eu

FAO. 2010. The State of Food Insecurity in the World (SOFI): Addressing food insecurity in protracted crises. Rome.

Ferronato, Navarro, Torretta, Vincenzo. 2019. “Waste Mismanagement in Developing Countries: A Review of Global Issues”. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health 16(6), 1060. doi:10.3390/ijerph16061060. PMC 6466021. PMID 30909625.

Forti V, Balde CP, Kuehr R, Bel G. 2020. The Global E-Waste Monitor 2020: Quantities, Flows, and the Circular Economy Potential; United Nations University: Tokyo, Japan, 2020;

Frazzoli Chiara, Orisakwe Orish Ebere, Dragone Roberto, Mantovani Alberto. 2010. “Diagnostic health risk assessment of electronic waste on the general population in developing countries’ scenarios”. Environmental Impact Assessment Review 30(6), 388-399. doi:10.1016/ j.eiar. 2009.

Gahukar RT. 2009. Sustainable agriculture in India: Current situation and future needs. Perspectives International Journal of Agricultural Sciences, Vol. 5 Issue 1, January to May 2009: 1-7. FAO Technical Advisor (Retd.), Arag Biotech Pvt. Ltd., Plot 220, Reshimbag, NAGPUR (M.S.) INDIA

Gill Gitanjali Nain. 2021. “Electronic waste”. Encyclopedia Britannica, https://www.britannica .com/ technology/electronic-waste.

Hamid El Bilali. 2019. Research on agro-food sustainability transitions: where are food security and nutrition? Food Security (2019) 11, 559-577: Published online: 16 May 2019 https://doi.org /10.1007 /s12571-019-00922-1

Illes A, Geeraerts K. 2016. Illegal Shipments of E-waste from the EU to China. In Fighting Environmental Crime in Europe and Beyond; Springer Science and Business Media LLC: Berlin/Heidelberg, Germany pp. 129-160.

Kirschbaum Miko UF. 2000. “Will changes in soil organic carbon act as a positive or negative feedback on global warming?”. Biogeochemistry 48(1), 21-51.

Kummer K. 1992. The international regulation of transboundary traffic in hazardous wastes: The 1989 Basel Convention. Int. Comp. Law Q. 1992, 41, 530-562.

Mahipal Singh Sankhla, Mayuri Kumari, Manisha Nandan, Shriyash Mohril, Gaurav Pratap Singh, Bhaskar Chaturvedi, Dr Rajeev Kumar. 2016. Effect of Electronic waste on Environmental and Human health- A Review. IOSR Journal of Environmental Science, Toxicology and Food Technology (IOSR-JESTFT) e-ISSN: 2319-2402,p- ISSN: 2319-2399 10(9), Ver. I (Sep. 2016), PP 98-104

Mihaela Kruzslicika. 2014. Food security through sustainable agriculture: Agricultural Economics and Rural Development, New Series, Year XI, no. 2, p. 195-202, 2014, Institute of Agricultural Economics, Romanian Academy, Bucharest United Nations, (2008). Organic Agriculture and Food Security in Africa. (UNCTAD/DITC/TED/2007/15), 2008, http://www.unep-unctad.org/cbt

Montrose P. 2011. “Think before you shuffle”, News to Use (Wellcorps International). Available: http://www.wellcorps.com/Think-Before-You-Shuff

Ogunseitan OA. 2013. The Basel Convention and e-waste: Translation of scientific uncertainty to protective policy. Lancet Glob. Health 1, e313-e314.

Rabani B, Thakur B. 2020. Recycling Potential of E-Waste for Jammu City. Int. J. Progress. Res. Sci. Eng 1, 29-32. Available online: https://journals.grdp ublications. com /index.php/ijprse/article/view/98

Raghupathy L, Krüger C, Chaturvedi A, Arora R, Henzler MP. 2010. E-waste recycling in India: Bridging the gap between the informal and formal sector. Available: http://www.iswa.org/fileadmin /galleries/General%20Assembly%20and%20WC%20 2010%2011%20Hamburg/Presentations/Krueger.pdf

Ray A. 2008.”Waste management in developing Asia: Can trade and cooperation help?” The Journal of Environment & Development 17(1), 3-25.

Robinson Brett H. 2009. “E-waste: An assessment of global production and environmental impacts”. Science of the Total Environment 408(2), 183-191. Bibcode:2009ScTEn.408..183R. doi:10.1016/ j.scitotenv. 2009.09.044. ISSN 0048-9697. PMID 19846207.

Sakar Anne. 2016. “Dad brought home lead, kids got sick”. The Cincinnati Enquirer.

Saldana-Duran CE, Bernache-Perez G, Ojeda-Benitez S, Cruz-Sotelo SE. 2020. Environmental pollution of E-waste: Generation, collection, legislation, and recycling practices in Mexico. In Handbook of Electronic Waste Management; Butterworth-Heinemann: Oxford, UK pp. 421-442.

Smith T, Sonnenfeld DA, Naguib Pellow D. 2006. Challenging the chip: Labor rights and environmental justice in the global electronics industry (Philadelphia, PA, Temple University Press).

Tsydenova O, Bengtsson M. 2011. “Chemical hazards associated with treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment”, in Waste Management 31(1), pp. 45-58.

Wang B, Ren C, Dong X, Zhang B, Wang Z. 2019. Determinants shaping willingness towards on-line recycling behaviour: An empirical study of household e-waste recycling in China. Resour. Conserv. Recycl 143, 218-225.

Wath Sushant B, Dutt PS, Chakrabarti T. 2011. E-waste scenario in India, its management and implications(PDF). Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 172(1-4), 249-262. doi:10.1007/s10661-010-1331-9. PMID 20151189. S2CID 8070711.

WEF. 2019. “A New Circular Vision for Electronics, Time for a Global Reboot“. World Economic Forum. 24 January 2019.

Widmer R, Oswald-Krapf H, Sinha-Khetriwal D, Schnellmann M, Boni H. 2005. “Global perspectives on e-waste”, in Environmental Impact Assessment Review 25(5), pp.436-458.

Wilson DC, Velis C, Cheeseman C. 2006. “Role of informal sector recycling in waste management in developing countries.” Habitat International 30, 797-808

Wolsink M. 1994.”Entanglement of interests and motives: Assumptions behind the NIMBY-theory on Facility Siting.” Urban Studies 31(6), 851-866.