Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences I INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | February 1, 2020

| Download 1

Nitrate accumulation in the winter and summer vegetables grown in the Punjab (Pakistan)

Muhammad Mubashir, Niaz Ahmed, Ashfaq Ahmad Rahi, Sadiq Muhammad, Hafiz Saeed-ur-Rehman, Ghulam Murtaza Khan, Khurram Shehzad Baig, Muhammad Akram, Munawar Mehdi

Key Words:

Int. J. Biosci.16(2), 80-88, February 2020

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12692/ijb/16.2.80-88


IJB 2020 [Generate Certificate]


Vegetables occupy a pivotal place in the human diet, but unfortunately these contribute maximally to nitrate accumulation and pose serious health hazards. Nitrite and nitroso compounds which form when nitrite binds to other substances before or after ingestion e.g. the amines derived from proteins are toxic and can lead to severe pathologies in humans.  Thus, the assessment of the health risk of nitrate to humans should encompass the toxicity of both nitrite and nitroso compounds. That’s why a comprehensive study was carried out to determine the nitrate accumulation in winter and summer vegetables throughout the Punjab province of Pakistan. The winter vegetables accumulated more NO3 content than summer vegetables. On the other hand leafy vegetables accumulated more nitrates than others. Among the winter vegetables radish and hybrid spinach remained at the top regarding NO3 accumulation. Whereas among the summer vegetables i.e. brinjal and squish secured the highest position in this regard. The factors affecting the nitrate content viz season (winter and summer), growing intensity of agriculture fertilizer use and soil texture were also studied.


Copyright © 2020
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Nitrate accumulation in the winter and summer vegetables grown in the Punjab (Pakistan)

Adekiya AO, Agbede TM. 2009. Growth and yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) as influenced by poultry manure & NPK fertilizer. Emirates Journal of Food and Agriculture 21(1), 10-20.

Bajwa R, Javaid A. 2007. Integrated disease management to control Shisham (Dalbergia sissoo Roxb.) decline in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Botany 39(7), 2651-2656.

Dominguez A, Guerri J, Cambra M, Navarro L, Moreno P, Peña L. 2000. Efficient production of transgenic citrus plants expressing the coat protein gene of citrus tristeza virus. Plant Cell Reports 19(4), 427-433.

Fateh FS, Mukhtar T, Kazmi MR, Abbassi NA, Arif AM. 2017. Prevalence of citrus decline in district Sargodha. Pakistan Journal of Agriculture Sciences 54(1), 9-13.

Hartemink AE. 2006. Soil fertility decline: definitions & assessment. Encyclopaedia of Soil Science 2(1), 1618-1621.

Iqbal S, Kamal T. 2014. Factors Affecting Citrus Productivity in District Dir Lower. Journal of Economics and Sustainable Development 5(1), 197-200.

Irshad U, Mukhtar T, Ashfaq M, Kayani MZ, Kayani SB, Hanif M, Aslam S. 2012. Pathogenicity of citrus nematode (Tylenchulus semipenetrans) on Citrus jambhiri. Journal of Animal and Plant Sciences 22(4), 1014-1018.

Karaşahin M. 2014. Effects of different irrigation methods & plant density on silage yield & yield components of PR 31Y43 hybrid corn cultivar. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 38(2), 159-168.

Kazmi MR, Fateh FS, Majeed K, Kashkhely AM, Hussain I, Ahmad I, Jabeen A. 2005. Incidence & etiology of mango sudden death phenomenon in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology 17, 154-158.

Khan A, Iram S, Rasool A. 2015. Pathogens identification & characterization that compromised citrus fruit quality in selected orchards of Sargodha. International Journal of Environmental Sciences & Toxicology Research 3(4), 54-59.

Malik AU, Khan IA, Rehman A, Yasin M, Bashir H, Ahsan H,  Aleem S, Saleem BA, Khan AA. 2014. Kinnow Quality Issues and Strategies for Improvement. Survey Report and Citrus Blemishes Resource Guide 30.

Maseko B, Coutinho T. 2001.Pathogenicity of Phytophthora &Pythium species associated with citrus. Canadian Journal of Phytopathology 9(3), 181-196.

Masood A, Saeed S, Mahmood A, Malik SA, Hussain N. 2012. Role of nutrients in management of mango sudden death disease in Punjab, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Zoology 44(3), 675-83.

Abu-Rayyan A, Kharawish BH, Al-Ismail K. 2004. Nitrate content in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) heads in relation to plant spacing, nitrogen form and irrigation level. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 84(9), 931-936. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.1733

Abu‐Rayyan A, Kharawish BH, Al‐Ismail K. 2004. Nitrate content in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) heads in relation to plant spacing, nitrogen form and irrigation level. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 84(9), 931-936. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.1733

Behr U, Wiebe HJ. 1992. Relation between photosynthesis and nitrate content of lettuce cultivars. Scientia Horticulturae 49(3-4), 175-179. https://doi.org/10.1016/0304-4238(92)90155-6

Blom-Zandstra M, Eenink AH. 1986. Nitrate concentration and reduction in different genotypes of lettuce. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 111(6), 908-911.

Bruning-Fann CS, Kaneene JB. 1993. The effects of nitrate, nitrite and N-nitroso compounds on human health: a review. Veterinary and human toxicology 35(6), 521-538.

Corre WJ, Breimer I. 1979. Nitrate and nitrite in vegetables. Centre for Agricultural Publishing and Documentation, Wagheningen, p 85.

Demsar J, Osvald J. 2003. Influence of NO3: NH4+ ratio on growth and nitrate accumulation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var capitata) in an aeroponic system. Agrochimica (Italy).

Gastal F, Lemaire G. 2002. N uptake and distribution in crops: an agronomical and ecophysiological perspective. Journal of Experimental Botany 53(370), 789-99. https://doi.org/10.1093/jexbot/53.370.789

Gianquinto GJP, Borin M, Scaife A. 1992. Nitrate content in vegetable crops as affected by soil characteristics, rte nd type of fertilization. In: Proceedings of the 2nd Congress of the European Society for Agronomy. P 256-257.

Gunes A, Aktas M, Post WH. 1995. Effect of partial replacement of nitrate by NH4-N, urea-N and amino acid-N in nutrient solution on nitrate accumulation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Agrochimica (Italy).

Heisler EG, Siciliano J, Krulick S, Feinberg J, Schwartz J. 1974. Changes in nitrate and nitrite content, and search for nitrosamines in storage-abused spinach and beets Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 22, 1029–1032.

Ishiwata H, Yamada T, Yoshiike N, Nishijima M, Kawamoto A, Uyama Y. 2002. Daily intake of food additives in Japan in five age groups estimated by the market basket method. European Food Research and Technology 215(5), 367-374. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00217-002-0577-z

Karłowski K. 1990. Nitrates in vegetables–proposals for their limitation in Poland. Roczniki Panstwowego Zakladu Higieny 41(1-2), 1-9.

Maynard DN, Barker AV, Minotti PL, Peck NH. 1976. Nitrate accumulation in vegetables. Advances in Agronomy 28, 71-118. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0065-2113(08)60553-2

Mensinga TT, Speijers GJ, Meulenbelt J. 2003. Health implications of exposure to environmental nitrogenous compounds. Toxicological reviews. 22(1), 41-51. https://doi.org/10.2165/00139709-200322010-00005

Pannala AS, Mani AR, Spencer JP, Skinner V, Bruckdorfer KR, Moore KP, Rice-Evans CA. 2003. The effect of dietary nitrate on salivary, plasma, and urinary nitrate metabolism in humans. Free Radical Biology and Medicine. 34(5), 576-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0891-5849(02)01353-9

Quilleré I, Dufossé C, Roux Y, Foyer CH, Caboche M, Morot-Gaudry JF. 1994. The effects of deregulation of NR gene expression on growth and nitrogen metabolism of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia plants. Journal of Experimental Botany 45(9), 1205-1211. https://doi.org/10.1093/jxb/45.9.1205

Ryan J; Estefan G, Rashid A. 2001. Soil and Plant Analysis Laboratory Manual, 2nd Ed.; Int. Center for Agric. Res. in the Dry Areas (ICARDA): Syria, Allepo, p 172.

Santamaria P. 2006. Nitrate in vegetables: toxicity, content, intake and EC regulation. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 86(1), 10-17. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2351

Santamria, P. 2006. Review. Nitrate in vegetables: toxicity, content, intake and EC regulation. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 86, 10-17. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.2351

SAS Institute. 1988. SAS/STAT user’s guide, release 6.03. Cary, NC: SAS Institute

Sisson VA, Rufty TW, Williamson RjE. 1991. Nitrogen-use efficiency among flue-cured tobacco genotypes. Crop Science l31, 1615-1620. https://doi.org/10.2135/cropsci1991.0011183X003100060047x

Tamme T, Reinik M, Püssa T, Roasto M, Meremäe K, Kiis A. 2010. Dynamics of nitrate and nitrite content during storage of home-made and small-scale industrially produced raw vegetable juices and their dietary intake. Food Additives and Contaminants. 27(4), 487-495. https://doi.org/10.1080/19440040903439796

Tesi R, Lenzi A. 1998. Controlled-release fertilizers and nitrate accumulation in lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.). Agricoltura mediterranea 128(4), 313-320.

Van der Boon J, Steenhuizen JW, Steingrover EG. 1990. Growth and nitrate concentration of lettuce as affected by total nitrogen and chloride concentration, NH4/NO3 ratio and temperature of the recirculating nutrient solution. Journal of Horticultural Science 65(3), 309-321. https://doi.org/10.1080/00221589.1990.11516060

Van der Leij M, Smith SJ, Miller AJ. 1998. Remobilisation of vacuolar stored nitrate in barley root cells. Planta 205(1), 64-72.

Wang Z, Zong Z, Li S, Chen B. 2002. Nitrate accumulation in vegetables and its residual in vegetable fields. Huan jing ke xue= Huanjing kexue 23, 79-83.


Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background