Nutritional indices of Tribolium castaneum (herbst) and its response to plant extracts in relation to three types of flours

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/05/2014
Views (129) Download (3)

Nutritional indices of Tribolium castaneum (herbst) and its response to plant extracts in relation to three types of flours

Muhammad Sagheer, Mansoor-ul-Hasan, Muhammad Bilal, Malik Najam-ul-Hassan, Fawad Zafar Ahmad Khan, Shireen Raza Haidri, Muhammad Farhan
Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res.4( 5), 51-56, May 2014.
Certificate: IJAAR 2014 [Generate Certificate]


Tribolium castaneum is a major pest of stored grains and processed commodities. The present experiments were conducted to check the nutritional indices of T. castaneum reared on corn, wheat and barley flour. Mortality effect of acetone extracts of various concentrations (5.0, 10.0 and 15.0%) of Nerium oleander from three different cultivars (yellow, pink and white) was also evaluated against T. castaneum at different exposure intervals (24, 48 and 72h). Maximum Consumption Index (CI) (15.57 mg/t), Relative Growth Rate (RGR) (0.027mg/t) and Approximate Digestibility (AD) (78.42 %) were observed in Corn flour and minimum CI (6.6 mg/t), RGR (0.024 mg/t) and AD (35.02%) was recorded in barley flour. Maximum and minimum value of Efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI) was observed in barley and corn flour respectively. Maximum and minimum adult weight and flour loss weight was observed in corn and barley flour respectively. The mortality of T. castaneum increased with increase in concentration and with increase in time interval. The results also revealed that highest percent mortality (24%) was achieved when extract of yellow cultivar of test plant with (15%) concentration apply for 72hrs and with white cultivar of test plant resulted in (0.0%) mortality at 5% concentration after 24hrs of application. From these results, it was concluded that corn flour could be a suitable rearing medium for the growth of T. castaneum, while yellow cultivar of N. oleander could be placed in IPM for the control of this pest.


Barnby MA, Klocke JA. 1987. Effects of azadirachtin on the development of the tobacco budworm,Heliothis virescens(Fabr.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Insect Physiology 33, 69-75.

Campbell JF, Runnion C. 2003. Patch exploitation by female red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum. Journal of Insect Science. 3, 20-24.

Hameed A, Hussain A, Iqbal M, Hussain M, Naeem M, Sajjad A, Hussnain H, Sadiq MA, Tipu A. 2012. Toxicological effects of neem (Azadirachta indica), knair (Nerium oleander) and spinosad (Tracer 240 SC) on the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) (Herbst). African Journal of Agricultural Research 7, 555-560.

Hiiesaar KL, Metspalu A, Kuusik S. 2001. An estimation of influences evoked by some natural insecticides on greenhouse pest insects and mites. Practice oriented results on the use of plant extracts and pheromones in pest control. Proceedings of the international workshop, Estonia, Tartu, 24, 17-27.

Hodges RJ, Robinson R, Hall DR. 1996. Quinone contamination of de-husked rice by Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae). Journal of Stored Product Research. 32, 31-37.

Hussain A, Akram W, Khan FS. 1996. Determination of insecticide resistance in red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) collected from Rawalpindi. Pakistan Entomologist. 8, 59-61.

Jbilou R, Amri H, Bouayad N, Ghailani N, Ennabili A, Sayah F. 2008. Insecticidal effects of extracts of plant species on larval development, alpha amylase activity and offspring production of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Insecta: Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) Bio- resource Technology. 99, 959– 964.

Khan FZA, Sagheer M, Hasan M, Gul HT, Hasan F, Manzoor SA, Wahid A. 2013. Agricultural dynamics in Pakistan: Current issues and solutions. Russian Journal of Agriculture and Socio-Economic Sciences 8, 20-26.

Khan FZA, Sagheer M, Hasan M, Saeed S, Ali K, Gul HT, Bukhari SA, Manzoor SA. 2013. Toxicological and repellent potential of some plant extracts against stored product insect pest, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst.) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). International Journal of Biosciences 3, 280-286.

Lindgren  BS,  Nordlander  S,  Birgersson  G. 1996. Feeding deterrence of verbenone to the pine weevil, Hylobius abietis (L.) (Coleoptra., Curculionidae). Journal of Applied Entomology. 120, 397-403.

Mamun MSA, Shahjahan M, Ahmad M. 2009. Laboratory evaluation of some indigenous plant extracts as toxicants against red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) Journal of Bangladesh Agricultural University. 7, 1–5.

Oji O, Okafor QE, 2000. Toxicological studies on stem bark, leaf and seed kernel of yellow Oleander (Thevetia peruviana). Phytoth Research.14,133-135.

Pugazhvendan SR, Ross PR, Elumalai K. 2012. Insecticidal and Repellant Activities of Four indigenous medicinal Plants Against Stored Grain Pest, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Diseases. 35, 16-20.

Sagheer M, Hasan M, Latif MA, Iqbal J. 2011. Evaluation of some indigenous medicinal plants as a source of toxicant, repellent and growth inhibitors against Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae). Pakistan Entomologist. 33, 87-91.

Shaurub EH, Gharsa GM. 2012. Food consumption and utilization by Tribolium confusum du Val (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae and their susceptibility to the acetone extract of Nerium oleander L. (Apocynaceae) leaves in relation to three types of flour. Journal of Stored Product Research. 51, 56-60.

Siddiqui BS, Begum S, Siddiqui S, Lichter W. 1995. Two cytotoxic pentacyclic triterpenoids from Nerium oleander. Phytochemistry. 39, 171-174.

Waldbauer GP. 1968. The consumption and utilization of food by insects. In: Treherne, J.E., Berridge, M.J., Wigglesworth, V.B. (Eds.). Advances in Insect Physiology, vol. 5. Academic Press, New York, London, pp. 229-288.

Xue M, Subramanyam B, Shi YC, Campbell J, Hartzer M. 2010. Development, relative retention and fecundity of Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) on different starches. Proceed 10th International Working Conf Stored Prod Protec,. Julius-Kühn-Archiv, Estoril, Portugal, 425: 207-211.

Zettler JL, Cuperus GW. 1990. Pesticide resistance in Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) and Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) in wheat. Journal of Eco., Entomol, 83, 1677–1681.

Zettler JL. 1991. Pesticide resistance in Tribolium castaneum and Tribolium confusum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae from flour mills in the United States. Journal of Eco ., Entomol., 84, 763–767.

Zia A, Siddiqui BS, Begum S, Suria A. 1995. Studies on the constituents of the leaves of Nerium oleander on behavior pattern in mice. J. Ethnopharm., 49, 33-39.