Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Occupational health risk assessment of automobile painters in Owerri metropolis, Nigeria

Research Paper | January 1, 2022

| Download 23

Nneoma Ukachi, Chidiebere Emmanuel Ugwu, Amara Nancy Mbachu, Stephen Monday Suru

Key Words:

J. Bio. Env. Sci.20( 1), 118-126, January 2022


JBES 2022 [Generate Certificate]


The study evaluated the occupational health risks among automobile painters using biochemical indices. A total of 30 randomly selected male automobile painters and 32 age-matched control subjects were recruited in the study. Antioxidant and haematological indices were analysed by standard methods. Information about the life style of the test subjects revealed that 46.7% attained secondary level of education while 26.7% and 26.6% attained primary and tertiary level of education respectively. Fifty percent of the automobile painters were aware of the hazards involved while only 10% wore protective devices during painting activities. According to their duration of exposure, 50% were exposed for 5 years or less whereas 11% and 39% were exposed for 6-10 years and above 10 years respectively. The results showed a significant increase in the mean levels of serum malondialdehyde (MDA) in the automobile painters compared with the control subjects (P<0.05) while the mean serum levels of catalase, glutathione peroxidase activities and vitamin E concentrations in automobile painters were significantly lower than in the control subjects ( P<0.05). There was a significant increase in the mean granulocytes concentration but significantly lower MCHC, platelets and mean platelet volume (MPV)(P<0.05) in the test subjects relative to the control subjects. The mean C- reactive protein concentration was not significantly altered between the two groups (P>0.05). The antioxidant vitamin E and MDA significantly correlated with the years of exposure. The mean catalase level increased mildly (P>0.05) as the duration increased while glutathione peroxidase activity decreased as the duration of exposure increased. Conclusively, the results showed increased lipid peroxidation, oxidative stress and anaemia among automobile painters, with no significant inflammatory response. It is apparent that the automobile painters studied are at increased occupational risk.


Copyright © 2022
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Occupational health risk assessment of automobile painters in Owerri metropolis, Nigeria

Adu P, Pobee R, Awuah A, Asiamah PB, Amoani F, Gyabaa S. 2018. Reduced haematopoietic output in automobile mechanics and sprayers with chronic exposure to petrochemicals: a case-control study in Cape Coast, Ghana. Journal of Environmental and Public Health 18, 989. ID 9563989. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/9563989

AlevKaragözler A, Nihayet M, Kadir B. 2002. Effects of long-term solvent exposure on blood cytokine levels and antioxidant enzyme activities in house painters. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health Part A 17(65), 1237-1246. DOI: 10.1080/152873902760125723

Anetor JI, Adeniyi FAA. 2001. Antioxidant status in occupational lead toxicity in Nigerians. Biokemistri 12, 1-8.

Arinola OG, Akiibinu MO. 2006. The levels of antioxidants and some trace metals in Nigerians that are occupationally exposed to chemicals. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 10 (2), 65-68. https://www.ijoem.com/text.asp?

Awodele O, Akinyede A, Babawale OO, Babatunde A, Coker A, Akintonwa H. 2013. Trace elements and oxidative stress levels in the blood of painters in Lagos, Nigeria: occupational survey and health concern. Biological Trace Element Resourses 153, 127. DOI:10.1007/s12011-013-9674-z

Bahram H, Seyed JS, Ali K, Kamal A, Ali H, Alireza A, Rad M A. 2017. Hematologic evaluation of painting hall workers in an automobile manufacturing company. Shiraz E-Medical Journal 18(12), 350. DOI : 10.5812/semj.57350

Baker H, Frank O. 1968. Assay of vitamin E in plasma. Clinical Vitaminology. New York, Wiley, 172.

DuPont Personal Protection for Paint Spray (DPSS). 2004. Standard industrial hygiene practices for spray painting.

Egoro ET, Oni EJ, Lawrence JE. 2021. Occupational effect of spray painting fumes on some biochemical parameters in automobile spray painters in Yenagoa Bayelsa State, Nigeria. World Advanced Journal of Research and Reviews 09(02), 038-044. DOI: https://doi.org/10.30574/wjarr.2021.9.2.0033

Gomes J, Lloyd O, Norman J. 2001. Dust exposure and impairment of lung functions at a small iron foundry in a rapidly growing country. Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 58, 656-662. DOI: 10.1136/oem.58.10.656

Goyal T, Mitra P, Singh P, Sharma P, Sharma S. 2021. Evaluation of oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokines in occupationally cadmium exposed workers. Work 69(1), 67-73. DOI: 10.3233/ WOR-203302

Gutteridge JM, Wilkins S. 1982. Method of lipid peroxidation (MDA) assay. Federation of Europian Biochemical Societies 137(2), 327-330.

Hadwan MH, Abed HN. 2016. Data supporting the spectrophotometric method for the estimation of catalase activity. Data in Brief 6, 194-199.

Halifeoglu ICanatan HUstundag BIlhan N, Inanc F. 2000. Effect of thinner inhalation on lipid peroxidation and some antioxidant enzymes of people working with paint thinner. Cell Biochemistry and Function 18, 263-267. DOI: 10.1002/1099-0844 (200012) 18:4<263: AID-CBF882>3.0.CO;2-1

Hormozi M, Mirzaei R, Nakhaee A, Izadi S, Dehghan Haghighi J. 2018. The biochemical effects of occupational exposure to lead and cadmium on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant enzymes activity in the blood of glazers in tile industry. Toxicology and Industrial Health 34(7), 459-467. DOI: 10.1177/0748233718769526.

Hugo M, Arielle M, Priscila T, Luiz AZ C, Vanessa M. 2011. Occupational risk assessment of paint industry workers. Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine 15, 52-58. DOI: 10.4103/0019-5278.90374

Ibeneme S, Ibeneme G, Ettu T, Ativie R, Okoye I, Fortwenge IG. 2017. Occupation-specific association between particulate matter exposure, cardiovascular and respiratory function in cement workers, automobile spray painters and saw millers. World Confederation for Physical Therapy 1, 1-2.

International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). 2010. Occupational exposure as a painter.

Ishiaq OO. 2019. Oxidative stress indices as markers of lead and cadmium exposure toxicity in auto technicians in Ibadan, Nigeria. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 19, Article ID 3030614. DOI: doi.org/10.1155/2019/3030614.

Jessie S. 2015. Inflammation: causes, symptoms and anti-inflammatory diet. Available from https://livescience.com/52344-inflammation.html

Kshirsagar MS, Patil AJ, Patil JA. 2019. Increased blood lead level alters the heme biosynthesis and haematological parameters of spray painters from Western Maharashtra, India. Toxicology and Environmental Health Sciences 11, 168-174.

Maksoud NA, Aal KA, Ghandour N. 2018. Assessment of hematotoxicity and genotoxicity among paint workers in Assiut Governorate: a case control study. Egypt Journal of Forensic Science 8, 6. Doi: https://doi.org/10.1186/s41935-017-0029-3

Mohammad IK, Mahdi AA, Raviraja A, Najmul I, Iqbal A, Thuppil V. 2008. Lead-induced oxidative stress in painters .Archives of Industrial Hygiene and Toxicology 59, 161-169.

Moro AM, Brucker N, Charao M, Bulcao R, Freitas F, Baierle M, Nascimento SValentini JCassini CSalvador MLinden RThiesen FBuffon AMoresco RGarcia SC. 2012. Evaluation of genotoxicity and oxidative damage in painters exposed to low levels of toluene. Mutation Research 1(746), 42-48.

Occupational Safety and Health Act 1984 and Occupational Safety and Health Regulations 1996, Amended in June 2009 (OSHA). 2009. Code of Practice: Spray painting. 17-31. https://doi.org/10.2478/10004-1254-59-2008-1883

Oduola T, Raheem GO, Oke OT, Adeosun OG, Dallatu M K, Mainasara AS. 2015. Organic solvent exposure: hepatotoxicity, nephrotoxicity, and haematotoxicity assessment amongst vehicle spray painters in Ile-Ife, Nigeria. American Journal of Environmental Protection 3(3), 95-99.

Packard RM. 1989. Industrial production; health and disease in sub-Saharan Africa. Social Science and Medicine 28, 75-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/0277-9536(89)90102-0

Rahman I, Adcock IM. 2006. Oxidative stress and redox regulation of lung inflammation in COPD. Europe Respiratory Journal 28, 219-242. DOI: 10.1183/09031936.06.00053805

Rotruk JT, Pope AL, Ganther HC, Hafeman DG, Hoekstro WG. 1973. Selenium: biochemical role as a component of glutathione peroxidase. Science 179, 588-590. https://doi.org/ 10.1111/ j.1753-4887.1980.tb05961.x

Scélo G, Metayer C, Zhang L, Wiemels JL, Aldrich MC, Selvin S. 2009. Household exposure to paint and petroleum solvents, chromosomal translocations, and the risk of childhood leukemia. Environmental Health Perspectives 117(1), 133-139. DOI: 10.1289/ehp.11927

World Health Organization (WHO). 1992. (Press release) International Chemical Safety group, Medicine Digest. 55.

Zbigniew S, Marta W, Anna M, Aleksandra K, Michał D, Francesco B, Patryk S, Sławomir K. 2020. Potential antioxidant activity of calcium and selected oxidative stress markers in lead- and cadmium-exposed workers, Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 20, ID 8035631 https:// doi.org/ 10.1155/2020/8035631