On-farm testing of strip intercropping of annual crops for forage yield and quality

Paper Details

Research Paper 01/04/2014
Views (250) Download (11)

On-farm testing of strip intercropping of annual crops for forage yield and quality

T. Akim Omokanye
Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res.4( 4), 65-76, April 2014.
Certificate: IJAAR 2014 [Generate Certificate]


Four annual crops were used for the following 5 strip intercrop treatments over 2 years: (1) barley- field peas-oat, (2) barley-field peas-canola, (3) barley-canola-oat, (4) barley-canola, and (5) oats-canola. The crops within each strip intercrop treatment were seeded side be sided. Forage harvest for dry matter (DM) and nutritive value was done across the crops within each treatment. Also, the four crops used (barley, canola, field peas and oat) were examined for their individual DM and forage nutritive value. The forage DM was not different among strip intercrop treatments as well as among individual crops. Forage DM was generally higher in 2011 than 2010, with a difference of 2494 kg ha-1 between the two years for strip intercrops and 3190 kg ha-1 for individual crops. The forage crude protein (CP) and CP fractions, and CP yield (CPY) were not significantly different among strip intercrop treatments. For individual crops, forage CP and only two of the CP fractions showed significant differences among individual crops. The two cereals used (oat and barley) consistently showed lower CP, acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADICP) and digestible crude protein (DCP) values than field peas and canola for the individual crops. Inclusion of canola in some of the strip-intercrops seemed to have some positive effects on forage calcium (Ca) content compared to when canola was not included. Peas on its own had the highest Ca content of all the individual crops, but did not have any significant effect when it was present in the crop combinations.


Agriculture and Rural Development. 2004. Beef Ration Rules of Thumb. Agdex 420/52-4. Retrieved from: [March, 2013].

Baron VS, Aasen A, Oba M, Dick AC, Salmon DF, Basarab JA, Stevenson CF. 2012. Swath-Grazing Potential for Small-Grain Species with a Delayed Planting Date. Agronomy Journal 104, 393-404.

Carr PM, Horsley RD, Poland WW. 2004. Barley, Oat, and Cereal–Pea Mixtures as Dryland Forages in the Northern Great Plains. Agron. J. 96, 677-684.

Cruse RM. 2008. Strip intercropping: ACRP conversion option. Conservation reserve program: issues and options. CRP-17. Reviewed June 2008. Iowa State University, University Extension, Ames, Iowa, USA.

Demarguilly C, Weiss P. 1970. Tableau de la valeur alimentaire des fourrages. Paris, INRA.

Entz MH, Baron VS, Carr P, McCaughey PM, Smith SR, Cash D. 2002. Potential of forages to diversify Canadian and American northern great plain cropping systems. Agronomy Journal 94, 240–250.

Eskandari H, Ghanbari A, Javanmard A. 2009. Intercropping of Cereals and Legumes for Forage Production. Notulae Scientia Biologicae 1, 7-13.

Gebrehiwot L, McGrow RL, Assefu, G. 1996. Forage yield and quality profile of three annual legumes in the tropical highlands of Ethiopia. Journal of Agriculture 73, 83-98.

Gill KS, Omokanye AT, Pettyjohn JP, Elsen M. 2013 . Agronomic performance and beef cattle nutrition suitability of forage oat varieties grown in the Peace Region of Alberta, Canada. Journal of Agricultural Science 5, 128-145.

McCartney D, Basarab JA, Okine EK, Baron VS, Depalme AJ. 2004. Alternative fall and winter feeding systems for spring calving beef cows. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 84, 511–522.

McCartney D, Fraser J, Ohama A. 2008. Annual cool season crops for grazing by beef cattle. A Canadian review. Canadian Journal of Animal Science 88, 517-533.

Omokanye AT. 2014. Peace Region Forage Industry. 2014 Peace Region Forage Agronomy Update (sponsored by the Peace Region Forage Seed Association), Rycroft, Alberta, Canada, Tuesday, March 25th, 2014.

Reta Sanchez DG, Espinosa Silvia JT, Palomo Gil A, Serrato Corona JS, Cueto Wong JA, Gaytan Mascorro A. 2010 Forage yield and quality of intercropped corn and soybean in narrow strips. Span J Agric Res 8, 713–721

Ross SM, King JR, O’Donovan JT, Spaner D. 2004. Intercropping Berseem Clover with Barley and Oat Cultivars for Forage. Agron. J. 96, 1719-1729.

SAS Institute, Inc. 1990. SAS user’s guide: Statistics, Version 6. 4th ed. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC.

Schroeder JW. 1996. Quality Forage for Maximum Production and Return. North Dakota State University. Retrieved from: [March, 2013]. as1117w.

Strydhorst SM, King JR, Lopetinsky KJ, Harker KN. 2008. Forage Potential of Intercropping Barley with Faba Bean, Lupin, or Field Pea. Agron. J. 100:182-190.

Undersander D, Moore JE. 2002. Relative forage quality (RFQ) indexing legumes and grasses for forage quality. University of Wisconsin Extension. Retrievedfrom: [February, 2013].

USDA–NRCS (Natural Resources Conservation  Service). 2008.  Total  Digestible Nutrients and Protein per Acre Produced by Five Indiangrass  Cultivars.  Booneville  Plant  Materials Center, Plant Materials Technical Report CP 512 – Pasture & Hay Planting. Retrieved from: [February, 2013].

Van  Soest PJ.  1965.  Symposium  on  factors influencing  the voluntary  intake  of herbage  by ruminants: voluntary intake in relation to chemical composition and digestibility. J. Anim. Sci 24, 834- 843.

Western   States   Laboratory   Proficiency Testing Program. 1997. Soil and Plant Analysis Methods,  version  4  (Inductivity  Coupled  Plasma Emission Spectroscopy – Method 6001 EPA).