Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

On the annually recurrent of green macroalgal bloom phenomenon in Timsah Lake, Suez Canal, Egypt

Research Paper | January 1, 2015

| Download 3

Gihan A. El Shoubaky

Key Words:

J. Bio. Env. Sci.6( 1), 300-309, January 2015


JBES 2015 [Generate Certificate]


Consequence macroalgae blooms phenomenon annually in Timsah Lake, the green macroalgal blooms phenomenon was increased in spring 2014 than the previous study in spring 2004 spring 2005 in order to cover large parts of El Taawen area at the south of Timsah Lake. Macroalgal species were growing firstly on the lakebed in the late winter then separated from the bottom to cover large areas in spring season as mats on the surface of the lake. Massive macroalgal mats, composed primarily of Enteromorpha clathrata and Ulva lactuca and formed the principal predominant green mats in the studied seasons. Water and sediment samples were determined at the blooming time. The physico-chemical analysis of water and sediment specimens showed increasing in the nutrients. In contrast, dissolved oxygen was declined at the selected sites (anoxic conditions). Total Nitrogen, total phosphorus and organic matters recorded high levels in the sediments. Morphologically, the characteristic length and diameter of Enteromorpha clathrata and Ulva lactuca reached more than one meter in comparison with its natural size. Human activities on the Lake elevated the nutrients levels to the extent of stimulating algal blooms. Negatively impacts were interfered with economic uses such as fisheries in the Lake.


Copyright © 2015
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

On the annually recurrent of green macroalgal bloom phenomenon in Timsah Lake, Suez Canal, Egypt

Aleem AA. 1993. Marine algae of Alexandria. Egypt.

Altamirano M, Flores-Moya A, Conde F, Figueroa FL. 2000. Growth seasonality, photosynthetic pigments, and carbon and nitrogen content in relation to environmental factors: a field study of Ulva olivascens (Ulvales, Chlorophyta). Phycologia 39, 50-58.

APHA  (American  Public  Health  Association) 1992. Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water, 20th ed. APHA New York, 1270.

Baruah TC, Barthakur HP. 1997. A text book of soil analysis. – Vikas Publishing House, PVT Ltd, New Delhi. India.

Bricker SB, Longstaff B, Dennison W, Jones A, Boicourt, K, Wicks C, Woerner J. 2008. Effects of nutrient enrichment in the nation’s estuaries: a decade of change. Harmful Algae 8, 21–32.

Choi TS, Kang EJ, Kim J, Kim KY. 2010. Effect of salinity on growth and nutrient uptake of Ulva pertusa (Chlorophyta) from an eelgrass bed. Algae 25(1), 17-26.

Clavero V, Izquierdo JJ, Fernandez JA, Niell FX. 2000. Seasonal fluxes of phosphate and ammonium across the sediment-water interface in a shallow small estuary (Palmones River, southern Spain). Marine Ecology Progress Series 198, 51-60.

Condon RH, Steinberg DK, del Giorgio PA, Bouvier TC, Bronk DA, Graham WM, Ducklow HW. 2011. Jellyfish blooms result in a major microbial respiratory sink of carbon in marine systems. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 108 (25),10225–10230.

Dewis F, Freites M. 1970. Physical and chemical methods of soil and water analysis. Food and Agricultural Organization of the United Nations. Rome, 320.

Dowidar A, Abdel-Monem MH. 1990. Effect of chemical pollutants on bacterial counts in El-Temsah Lake area, Ismailia, Egypt. Journal of the Egyptian Public Health Association 65(3-4), 305-318.

El Shoubaky GA, Hamed AF. 2006. The characteristic algal mats and flora of El-Timsah Lake. Catrina 1 (2),75-80.

El Shoubaky GA, Salem EA. 2009. Biodiversity in Timsah Lake as a biofertilizer source to the economic plants. Egyptian Journal of Botany 49, 53-69.

El Shoubaky GA, Abdel-Kader DZ. 2007. Biological study on biomass and growth dynamics of Ulva lactuca and Enteromorpha intestinalis in marine and brackish waters in Egypt. Egyptian Journal Biotechnology 26, 117-129.

Gollasch S, Cohen AN. 2006. Bridging Divides: Maritime Canals as Invasion Corridors. Springer, 229.

Grenz C, Cloern JE, Hager SW, Cole BE. 2000. Dynamics of nutrient cycling and related benthic nutrient and oxygen fluxes during a spring phytoplankton bloom in South San Francisco Bay (USA). Marine Ecology Progress Series 197, 67-80.

Guidone M, Thornber CS. 2013. Examination of Ulva bloom species richness and relative abundance reveals two cryptically co-occurring bloom species in Narragansett Bay, Rhode Island. Harmful Algae 24, 1-9.

Kamer K, Schiff K, Kennison R, Fong P. 2002. Macroalgal nutrient dynamics in Upper Newport Bay. Technical Report No. 365. Southern California Coastal Water Research Project, Westminster, CA. 98.

Kim KY, Choi TS, Kim JH, Han T, Shin HW, Garbary DJ. 2004. Physiological ecology and seasonality of Ulva pertusa on a temperate rocky shore. Phycologia 43, 483-492.

Lavery PS, McComb AJ. 1991. Macroalgal-sediment nutrient interactions and their importance to macroalgal nutrition in a eutrophic estuary. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science 32, 281-295.

Liu DY, Keesing JK, Xing QG, Shi P. 2009. World’s largest macroalgal bloom caused by expansion of seaweed aquaculture in China. – Marine Pollution Bulletin 58,888-895.

Liu D, Keesing JK, Dong Z, Zhen Y, Di B, Shi Y, Fearns P, Shi P. 2010. Recurrence of the world’s lar 430 gest green-tide in 2009 in Yellow Sea, China: Porphyra yezoensis aquaculture rafts confirmed as nursery for macroalgal blooms. Marine Pollution Bulletin 60, 1423-1432.

Lyons DA, Mant RC, Bulleri F, Kotta J, Rilov G, Crowe TP. 2012. What are the effects of macroalgal blooms on the structure and functioning of marine ecosystems? A systematic review protocol. Environmental Evidence 1,7.

Morand P, Merceron M. 2005. Macroalgal population and sustainability. Journal of Coastal Research 21, 1009–1020.

Nelson TA, Haberlin K, Nelson AV, Ribarich H, Hotchkiss R, Van Alstyne KL, Buckingham L, Simunds DJ, Fredrickson K. 2008. Ecological and physiological controls of species composition in green macroalgal blooms. Ecology 89,1287-1298.

Parsons TR, Maita Y, Lalli CM. 1984. A Manual of Chemical and Biological Methods for Seawater Analysis. Pergamon Press, Oxford, 173.

Peckol P, Demeo-Anderson B, Rivers J, Valiela I, Maldonado M, Yates J. 1994. Growth, nutrient uptake capacities and tissue constituents of the macroalgae, Cladophora vagabunda and Gracilaria tikvahiae, related to site-specific nitrogen loading rales. Marine Biology 121, 179-185.

Pedersen MF, Borum J. 1997. Nutrient control of estuarine macroalgae: growth strategy and the balance between nitrogen requirements and uptake. Marine Ecology Progress Series 161, 155-163.

Pirie NW. 1956. Proteins in modern methods of plant analysis (edited by K. Peach and Miv. Tracey) IV- 23-68- Springer, Veriag, Berlin.

Reise K. 1985. Tidal flat ecology: an experimental approach to species interaction. In: Ecological Studies,Vol. 61, Springer, Verlag, Berlin.

Richardson AJ, Bakun A, Hays GC, Gibbons MJ. 2009. The jellyfish joyride: causes, consequences and management responses to a more gelatinous future. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 24(6), 312– 322.

Romano C, Widdows J, Brinsley MD, Staff1 FJ. 2003. Impact of Enteromorpha intestinalis mats on nearbed currents and sediment dynamics: flume studies. Marine Ecology Progress Series 256, 63–74.

Russell G, Fielding AH. 1981. Individuals, populations and communities. [in:] The biology of seaweeds, Lobban, C. S. and Wynne, M. J. (eds.), Blackwell Scientific Puplications, Oxford, 393-420.

Sfriso A, Birkemeyer T, Ghetti PF. 2001. Benthic macrofauna changes in areas of Venice lagoon populated by seagrasses or seaweeds. Marine Environmental Research 52, 323–349.

Sousa AI, Martins I, Lillebø AI, Flindt MR, Pardal MA. 2007. Influence of salinity, nutrients and light on the germination and growth of Enteromorpha sp. spores. Journal of Experimental Biology and Ecology 341, 142-150.

Stewart A, Grimshaw HM, Parkinson JA, Quarm C. 1974. Chemical analysis of ecological materials book, 214- 221.

Teichberg M, Fox SE, Olsen YS, Valiela I, Martinetto P, Iribarne O, Muto EY, Petti MAV, Corbisier TN, Soto-Jiménez M, Páez-Osuna F, Castro P, Freitas H, Zitelli A, Cardinaletti M, Tagliapietra D. 2010. Eutrophication and macroalgal blooms in temperate and tropical coastal waters: nutrient enrichment experiments with Ulva spp. Global Change Biology 16 (9), 2624–2637.

Trimmer M, Nedwell DB, Sivyer DB, Malcolm SJ. 2000. Seasonal organic mineralization and denitrification in intertidal sediments and their relationship to the abundance of Enteromorpha sp. and Ulva sp.. Marine Ecology Progress Series 203, 67-80.

Valiela I. 2006.  Global Coastal Change. MA, USA: Blackwell Publishing.

Valiela I. Mc Clelland J, Hauxwell J, Behr PJ, Hersh D, Foreman K. 1997. Macroalgal blooms in shallow estuaries: Controls and ecophysiological and ecosystem consequences. Limnology and Oceanography 42 (5), 1105-1118.

Van Den Hoek C, Mann DG, Jahns HM. 1995. Algae: an introduction to phycology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge , New York.

Villares R, Carballeira A. 2004. Nutrient limitation in macroalgae (Ulva and Enteromorpha) from the Rías Baixas (NW Spain). Marine Ecology (Berl) 25, 225–243.

Womersley HBS. 1984. The marine benthic flora of southern Australia, Part I (Govt Printer: Adelaide).

Womersley HBS. 1987. The marine benthic flora of southern Australia, Part II (Govt Printer: Adelaide).

Ye NH, Zhang XW, Mao YZ, Liang CW, Xu D, Zou J, Zhuang ZM, Wang QY. 2011. Green tides are overwhelming the coastline of our blue planet: taking the world’s largest example. Ecological Research 26, 477- 485.

Zhao J, Jiang P, Liu Z, Wang J, Cui Y, Qin S. 2011. Genetic variation of Ulva (Enteromorpha) prolifera (Ulvales, Chlorophyta) – the causative species of the green tides in the Yellow Sea, China. Journal of Applied Phycology 23, 227-233.