Welcome to International Network for Natural Sciences | INNSpub

Paper Details

Research Paper | August 1, 2015

| Download 1

Optimisation of major nutrients (N, P and K) for lowland rice production in Eastern Uganda

Wanyama, V.A. Ochwoh, E. Nankya, P.J.A. Van Asten

Key Words:

Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res.7(2), 218-227, August 2015


IJAAR 2015 [Generate Certificate]


Demand for rice in Uganda surpasses the supply and results in importation of over 30% of the rice consumed. Actual rice yields are still very low (1.5 t ha-1) compared to the potential yield (8 t ha-1). Therefore, this study aimed at establishing the major limiting nutrients and estimation of optimum fertilizer requirements for lowland rice for increased and sustainable production. The study was conducted in two seasons Eastern Uganda. Two sets of trials were conducted; nutrient omission trial for estimating indigenous nutrient supply of the major nutrients and response function and the recovery efficiency trial for estimating recovery of applied Nitrogen. Both experiments were laid in a RCBD, where the first one involved 8 treatments of NPK (t0, t1, t2, t4, t5, t6, t7 and t8) each at different rates. While the second experiment involved two treatments (t0 and t1) of N fertilizer. Applications of nitrogen significantly increased yield components and consequently the grain yield of rice. The major limiting nutrient for lowland rice production is nitrogen and the soil nitrogen supplying potential can support yield target of 2.8 t ha-1. Whereas, the indigenous Phosphorus and Potassium supply can support yield target of up to 9 t ha-1 and therefore, not limiting at achievable yield targets of 6 tha-1. Use of internal efficiencies was promising in analysis of nutrient status and nutrient requirement to achieve the specific yield targets. 65 kg N ha-1 is the optimum rate for lowland rice and this corresponds to a target yield of 5 t ha-1.


Copyright © 2015
By Authors and International Network for
Natural Sciences (INNSPUB)
This article is published under the terms of the Creative
Commons Attribution Liscense 4.0

Optimisation of major nutrients (N, P and K) for lowland rice production in Eastern Uganda

Aniku J. 2001. Soil classification and pedology. In: Agriculture in Uganda. General Information. National Agricultural Research Organisation 1, 79-80.

Asmare M, Heluf G, Markku Y, Birru Y. 2015. Phosphorus Status, Inorganic Phosphorus Forms and other Physicochemical Properties of Acid Soils of Farta District NorthWestern Highlands of Ethiopia. Applied and Environmental Soil Science, Article ID 748390, 11 pages.

Das KN, Basumatary A, Sabina A. 2015. Effect of Phosphorus and Potassium on Yield and Nutrient Uptake of Rice Under IPNS in an Inceptisol of Assam. Annals of Plant and Soil Research 17(1), 13-18.

De Datta SK. 1981. Principles and Practices of Rice Production. John Wiley & Sons, New York. USA.

De Datta, SK, Buresh RJ. 1990. Integrated nitrogen management in irrigated rice. Advances in Soil Science 10, 143-169.

Dobermann A, Cassman KG, Mamaril CP, Sheehy JE. 1998. Management of phosphorus, potassium and sulfur in intensive, irrigated lowland rice. Field Crops Research 56, 113–138.

Dobermann A, Cassman KG. 2002. Plant nutrient management for enhanced productivity in intensive grain production systems of the United States and Asia. Plant and Soil 247, 153–175.

Dobermann A, Fairhurst T. 2000. Rice: Nutrient Disorders and Nutrient Management. IRRI, Philippines, PPI, U.S.A., and PPIC, Canada.

FAO  (Food  and  Agricultural  Organization).  2004. Rice and narrowing yield gaps .w.w.w rice2004.org.

FAO 2004. International Year of Rice Concept Paper. Food and Agricultural Organisation of the United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy.

FAOSTAT, 2014. Agricultural producer production indices. Available online at: faostat.fao.org/site/682/default.aspx#ancor. Accessed on 28th.5.2015.

Graeme S, NSW DPI. 2014. Nitrogen Volatilisation: Factors affecting how much N is lost and how much is left over time. Research and Development, Project Summaries of GRDC-Supported Projects in 2013-14. Graeme.scwenke@dpi.nsw.gov.au.

Haefele SM, Wopereis MCS, Ndiaye MK, BArro SE, Ould IM. 2003. Internal nutrient efficiencies, fertilizer recovery rates and indigenous nutrient supply of irrigated lowland rice in Sahelian West Africa. Field Crops Research 80, 19-32.

Hollena N, Ridzwan AH, Mohd FR. 2008. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilization Mangement Practice on the Yield and Straw Nutrional Quality of Commercial Rice Varieties. Malaysian Journal of Mathematical Sciences 2(2), 61-71.

Janssen  BH,  de  Willigen  P.  2006.  Ideal  and saturated  soil  fertility  as  bench  marks  in  nutrient management. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment 116, 132-146.

Kaizzi CK, Vlek LG, Manfred D, Christopher M, Nick Van de Giesen. 2002. The potential benefit of green manures and inorganic fertilizer in cereal production on contrasting soils in Eastern Uganda. Ecology Series and Development series Cuvillier Verlag Gottingen 4, 71-74 P.

Kamwezi P, Adipala E, Ogenga-Latigo MW. 1997. Influence of crop residues on development of leaf blast on upland rice. African Crop Science Conference Proceedings 3, 961-967.

Kenneth J, Helleveng PE. 1914. Grain moisture content: Effects and Management. Extension Agricultural Engineer 701, 231-7881

Kibwika J, Imanywoha J, Birigwa G, Kikafunda J. 2002. The potential of upland rice varieties among smallholder farmers in Uganda.

Kirk GJD. 2001. Plant-mediated processes to acquire nutrients: Nitrogen uptake by rice plants. Plant and Soil 232, 129-134.

Mojtaba R, Shkri HV, Ebrahim A. 2009. The effects of irrigation and Nitrogen Management on Yield and Water Productivity of Rice. World Applied Sciences Journal 7(2), 203-210.

Okalebo JR, Gathua KW, Woomer PL. 2002. Laboratory Methods of Soil and Plant Analysis: A Working Manual. The Tropical Soil Biology and Fertility Program, Regional Office for Science and Technology for Africa, UNESCO, Nairobi, Kenya. P.

Patrick WH, Mahapatra IC. 1968. Transformation and availabilityto rice of nitrogen and phosphorus in waterlogged soils. Adv. Agron. 20, 323-359.

Peter JAK, Andrew NS, Poul JAW, Lars B, Laura TJ, Donnacha GD. 2015. Implementing agricultural Phosphus science and management to combat eutrophication. Ambio 44, 297-310.

Sahrawat KL, Narteh LT. 2002. A fertility index for submerged rice soils. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 33, 229–236.

Sahrawat KL. 2004. Ammonium production in submerged soils and sediments: The role of reducible iron. Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis 35, 399-411.

Sahrawat KL. 2005. Fertility and Organic matter in submerged rice soils. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics, Patancheru 502 324, India.

Simbahan GC, Adviento MAA. 2002. Site specific nutrient management for intensive rice cropping systems in Asia. Field Crops research 74, 37- 66.

Sinclair TR. 1998. Historical changes in harvest index and crop nitrogen accumulation. Review and Interpretation. Crop science 38, 638 – 643.

Takeshi S. 2005. Intensification of rainfed lowland rice production in WestAfrica: Present status and potential green revolution. The Deleloping Economics, WLIV-2, 232-51.

Tayler CH, James S, Owen Jr, Alex XN. 2014. Controlled-release-Fertilizer placement Affects the Leaching Pattern of nutrients from Nursery Containers during Irrigation. HortScience 49, 1341-1345.

Twongyirwa R, Sheil D, Majaliwa JGM, Ebanyat P, Tenywa MM, van Heist M. 2013. Variability of soil organic carbon stocks under different land uses: a study in an Afro-montane landscape in South Western Uganda. Geoderma 193-194, 282-289.

Viek PLG, Craswell ET. 2015. Effect of Nitrogen Source and Management on Ammonia Volatisation Losses from Flooded Rice-Soil Systems. Soil Science Society of America Journal 43, 352-358.

Wen Q, Cheng L. 1997. Fixation and release of Ammonium. Nitrogen in soils of China, 67-86.

Wopereis MCS, Donovan C, Nebie B, Guindo D, N’Diaye MK. 1999. Soil management in irrigated rice systems in the Sahel and Savannah regions of West Africa. Part 1. Agronomic analysis. Field Crops Resarch 61, 125-145.

Wopereis MCS, Haefele SM, Kebbeh M, Miezan K, Diack BS. 2001. Improving the productivity and profitability of irrigated rice production In: Haefele, S.M., Wopereis, M.C.S. Ndiaye, M.K. BArro, S.E. and Ould Isselmou, M., 2003. Internal nutrient efficiencies, fertilizer recovery rates and indigenous nutrient supply of irrigated lowland rice in Sahelian West Africa. Field Crops Research 80, 19-32.


Style Switcher

Select Layout
Chose Color
Chose Pattren
Chose Background