Optimizing soybean integration in maize-dominated cropping systems for enhanced yield and resource efficiency

Paper Details

Research Paper 11/03/2024
Views (126) Download (16)
current_issue_feature_image
publication_file

Optimizing soybean integration in maize-dominated cropping systems for enhanced yield and resource efficiency

Muhammad Asad, Haroon Zaman Khan, Ummar Ali, Muhammad Atif Shabir, Muhammad Adil, Zhang Jing
Int. J. Agron. Agri. Res.24( 3), 7-19, March 2024.
Certificate: IJAAR 2024 [Generate Certificate]

Abstract

Maize holds paramount significance in Pakistan’s agricultural landscape but traditional maize farming faces challenges due to inefficient resource management and soil fertility depletion, this study delves into the transformative benefits of intercropping maize with soybeans. A field experiment employed a factorial arrangement. It evaluated maize planting geometries (MPG) – P1: Alternate single row on 75 cm apart ridges, P2: Alternate double rows on 75 cm apart ridges, and control (CK) treatments without soybean intercropping. Intercropping techniques (SIT) for soybeans included S1: Soybean for brown manuring at 30 days after sowing (DAS), S2: Soybean as fodder at 60 days after sowing (DAS), and S3: Soybean as a grain crop at maturity. Standard methods were employed to record soil health, growth, and yield parameters. Results indicate that the P1 geometry optimizes both maize and soybean production, significantly impacting various parameters. The most favorable outcomes, such as 217.33 cm plant height, 22.24 cm cob length, 4.63 cm cob diameter, 496.13 total grains per cob, 372.97 g 1000-grain weight, 19.10 t ha-1 maize yield, 10.76 t ha-1 soybean yield, and 2.9% harvest index (HI), are observed with soybean-maize treatments on alternate single rows at 75 cm apart ridges with no intercropping. Additionally, the highest Benefit-Cost Ratio (BCR) of 1.19 is achieved when intercropping in alternate single rows at 75 cm apart with soybean as a grain crop. The adoption of the P1S3 approach emerges as economically viable for Faisalabad’s farming community, offering a sustainable remedy to labor-intensive practices and soil fertility concerns in Pakistan.

VIEWS 42

Aleminew A, Alemayehu M. 2020. Soil fertility depletion and its management options under crop production perspectives in Ethiopia: A review. Agricultural Reviews 41(2), 91-105.

Ariel CE, Eduardo OA, Benito GE, Lidia G. 2013. Effects of two plant arrangements in corn (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L. Merrill) intercropping on soil nitrogen and phosphorus status and growth of component crops at an Argentinean Argiudoll. American Journal of Agriculture and Forestry 1(2), 22-31.

Arshad R. 2000. Bio-economic deficiency of different maize based intercropping systems at different geometric configuration. M. Sc. (Hons) Agri (Doctoral dissertation, Thesis, Deptt. Agronomy, University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan).

Asad SA, Wahid MA, Farina S, Ali R, Muhammad F. 2020. Soybean production in Pakistan: experiences, challenges and prospects. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology 24(4), 995-1005.

Aziz AM, Abou-Elela, Usama A. Abd El-Razek, Khalil HE. 2012. Yield and its components of maize/soybean inter-cropping systems as affected by planting time and distribution. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences 6, 238-245.

Bawa A. 2021. Yield and Growth Response of Maize (Zea mays L.) to Varietal and Nitrogen Application in the Guinea Savanna Agro-Ecology of Ghana. Advances in Agriculture 1-8. 10.1155/2021/1765251.

Bybee-Finley KA. 2021. Crop Diversification Practices as a Strategy to Enhance the Resilience of Farms in the Face of Extreme Weather Events (Doctoral dissertation, Cornell University).

Das NK, Rao KG. 2023. Brown Manuring a Reliable Method of Weed Control and Source of Nutrients in Direct Seeded Rice (DSR). International Journal of Plant & Soil Science 35(17), 7-15.

Egbe OM, Alibo SE, Nwueze I. 2010. Evaluation of some extra-early-and early-maturing cowpea varieties for inter-cropping with maize in southern guinea savanna of Nigeria. Agriculture and Biology Journal of North America 1, 845-858.

Ehsanullah, Javed M, Ahmad R, Tariq A. 2011. Bio-economic assessment of maize-mash inter-cropping system. Crop and Environment 2, 41-46.

Erenstein O, Jaleta M, Sonder K, Mottaleb K, Prasanna BM. 2022. Global maize production, consumption and trade: Trends and R&D implications. Food Security 14(5), 1295-1319

Fan Y, Wang Z, Liao D, Raza MA, Wang B, Zhang J, Chen J, Feng L, Wu X, Liu C, Yang W. 2020. Uptake and utilization of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium as related to yield advantage in maize-soybean intercropping under different row configurations. Uptake and utilization of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium as related to yield advantage in maize-soybean intercropping under different row configurations. Scientific Reports 10(1), 9504.

FU ZD, Li ZH, Ping CH, Qing DU, Ting PA, Chun SO, WANG XC, LIU WG, YANG WY, YONG TW. 2019. Effects of maize-soybean relay intercropping on crop nutrient uptake and soil bacterial community. Journal of Integrative Agriculture 18(9), 2006-2018.

Ghaffarzaeh M, Prechac FG, Cruse RM.  1994. Grain yield response of corn, soybean and oat grown under strip intercropping systems. American Journal of Alternative Agriculture 9, 171–177.

Htet MN, Ya-qin P, Ya-dong X, Soomro RN, Jiang-bo H. 2016. Effect of intercropping maize (Zea mays L.) with soybean (Glycine max L.) on green forage yield, and quality evaluation Journal of Agriculture and Veterinary Sciences 9, 232-239.

Jena J, Maitra S, Hossain A, Pramanick B, Gitari HI, Praharaj S, Shankar T, Palai JB, Rathore A, Mandal TK, Jatav HS. 2022. Role of legumes in cropping system for soil ecosystem improvement. Ecosystem Services: Types, Management and Benefits. Nova Science Publishers Inc, 415.

Jocelyne RE, Béhiblo K, Ernest AK. 2020. Comparative study of nutritional value of wheat, maize, sorghum, millet and fonio: Some cereals commonly consumed in Côte d’Ivoire. European Scientific Journal 16(21), 118-131.

Kebebew SW, Belete K, Tana T. 2014. Productivity evaluation of maize-soybean    intercropping system under rain fed condition at Bench-Maji Zone, Ethiopia. Sky Journal of Agricultural Research 3, 158-164.

Kebede E. 2021. Contribution, utilization, and improvement of legumes-driven biological nitrogen fixation in agricultural systems. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems 5, 767998.

Khan M, Khan R, Wahab A, Rashid A. 2005. Yield and yield components of wheat as influenced by inter-cropping of chickpea, lentil and rapeseed in different proportions. Pakistan Journal of Agricultural Sciences 42, 3-4.

Khan MK, Khan MN, Ali N. 2007. Yield and yield components of intercropped maize and legume in relation to different planting pattern. Journal of Agricultural Research 32, 143-148.

Lyu X, Li M, Li X, Li S, Yan C, Ma C, Gong Z. 2020. Assessing the systematic effects of the concentration of nitrogen supplied to dual-root systems of soybean plants on nodulation and nitrogen fixation. Agronomy 10(6), 763.

Maitra S, Hossain A, Brestic M, Skalicky M, Ondrisik P, Gitari H, Brahmachari K, Shankar T, Bhadra P, Palai JB, Jena J. 2021. Intercropping- A low input agricultural strategy for food and environmental security Agronomy 11(2), 343.

Mandal MK, M Banerjee H, Banerjee, Alipatra A, Malik GC. 2013. Productivity of maize (Zea mays L.) based inter-cropping system during kharif season under red and lateritic tract of west Bengal. Journal of Life Sciences 9, 31-35.

Matusso JM, Mugwe JN, Mucheru-Muna M. 2014. Effects of different maize (Zea mays L.)-soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merrill) intercropping patterns on soil mineral-N, N-uptake and soil properties. African Journal of Agricultural Research 9(1), 42-55.

Matusso JM, Mujwve MJN, Mucheru-Muna M. 2013. Effect of different maize-soybean inter-cropping patterns on yields and land equivalent ratio (LER). Journal of Cereals and Oilseeds 4, 48-57.

Meena OP, Guar BL, Singh P. 2006. Effect of row ratios and fertility levels on productivity, economics and nutrients uptake in maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean inter-cropping system. Indian Journal of Agronomy 51, 178-182.

Osieyo SM. 2022. Comparative effects of maize-soybeans and maize-desmodium intercropping systems on yield of component crops and rainfall use efficiency in western Kenya (Doctoral dissertation, Maseno University).

Pakistan Bureau of Statistics. (2020). Pakistan Oilseed Development Board (PODB). https://www.finance.gov.pk/survey/chapter_22/PE(CK)2-AGRICULTURE.pdf

Panhwar MA, Memon FH, Kalhoro MA. Soomro MI. 2005. Performance of maize in inter-cropping system with soybean under different planting patterns and nitrogen levels. Journal of Applied Sciences 4, 201-204.

Poole N, Donovan J, Erenstein O. 2021. Agri-nutrition research: Revisiting the contribution of maize and wheat to human nutrition and health. Food Policy 100, 101976.

Raza MA, Cui L, Khan I, Din AM, Chen G, Ansar M, Ahmed M, Ahmad S, Manaf A, Titriku JK, Shah GA. 2021. Compact maize canopy improves radiation use efficiency and grain yield of maize/soybean relay intercropping system. Environmental Science and Pollution Research 28, 41135-41148.

Raza MA, Feng LY, Iqbal N, Manaf A, Khalid MH, Ur Rehman S, Wasaya A, Ansar M, Billah M, Yang F, Yang W. 2018. Effect of sulphur application on photosynthesis and biomass accumulation of sesame varieties under rainfed conditions. Agronomy 8 (8), 149.

Santalla JM, Amurrio JM, Rodino AP, De Ron AM. 2001. Variation in traits affecting nodulation of common bean under inter-cropping with maize and sole cropping. Euphytica 122, 243-255.

Shea Z, Singer WM, Zhang B. 2020. Soybean production, versatility, and improvement. Legume crops-prospects, production and uses.

Singh JK. 2007. Response of sunflower and French bean inter-cropping to different row ratios and nitrogen levels under rain fed condition of temperate Kashmir. Indian Journal of Agronomy 52, 36-39.

Soe Htet MN, Wang H, Yadav V, Sompouviseth T, Feng B. 2022. Legume integration augments the forage productivity and quality in maize-based system in the loess plateau region. Sustainability 14(10), 6022.

Steel RGD, Torrie JH, Dicky DA. 1997. Principles and Procedures of Statistics, A biometrical Approach. 3rd. Ed. McGraw Hill, Inc. Book Co. N.Y. 352-358.

Te X, Hassan MJ, Cui K, Xiao J, Aslam MN, Saeed A, Yang W, Ali S. 2022. Effect of different planting pattern arrangements on soil organic matter and soil nitrogen content under a maize/soybean strip relay intercropping system. Frontiers in Plant Science 13, 995750.

Uher D, Horvatić I, Jareš D. 2020. Influence of intercropping sweet sorghum with soybean on yield and crude protein content of fresh fodder. In Conference paper (pp. 284-288).

Ullah A, Bhatti M.A, Gurmani ZA, Imran M. 2007. Studies on planting patterns of maize (Zea mays L.) facilitating legumes inter-cropping. Journal of Agricultural Research 45, 113-118.

Undie UL, Uwah DF, Attoe EE. 2012. Effect of intercropping and crop arrangement on yield and productivity of late season maize/soybean mixtures in the humid environment of south southern Nigeria. Journal of Agricultural Science 4(4), pp.37-50.

US Department of Agriculture. 2020. Pakistan: Oilseeds and Products Annual. https://fas.usda.gov/data/pakistan-oilseeds-and-products-annual-5

Voora V, Larrea C, Bermudez S. 2020. Global market report: Soybeans. Winnipeg, Manitoba: International Institute for Sustainable Development.

Yang T, Siddique KH, Liu K. 2020. Cropping systems in agriculture and their impact on soil health-A review. Global Ecology and Conservation 23, e01118

Yuvaraj M, Pandiyan M, Gayathri P. 2020. Role of legumes in improving soil fertility status. Legume Crops-Prospects, Production and Uses 16-27.

Zahid A, Ali S, Ahmed M, Iqbal N. 2020. Improvement of soil health through residue management and conservation tillage in rice-wheat cropping system of Punjab, Pakistan. Agronomy 10(12), 1844.

Zhang H, Shi W, Ali S, Chang S, Jia Q, Hou F. 2022. Legume/Maize Intercropping and N Application for Improved Yield, Quality, Water and N Utilization for Forage Production. Agronomy 12(8), 1777.